Tag Archives: Floxies

EMA Final Decision re Fluoroquinolones

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) released their final decision regarding fluoroquinolones. You can read the EMA verdict in “Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products” and “Disabling and potentially permanent side effects lead to suspension or restrictions of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics” (both from the EMA web site). Additional information can be found on the UK Government web site in the article, “Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects.” Changes to European fluoroquinolone labels can be viewed HERE.

From the EMA:

Restrictions on the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics will mean that they should not be used:

  • to treat infections that might get better without treatment or are not severe (such as throat infections);
  • to treat non-bacterial infections, e.g. non-bacterial (chronic) prostatitis;
  • for preventing traveller’s diarrhoea or recurring lower urinary tract infections (urine infections that do not extend beyond the bladder);
  • to treat mild or moderate bacterial infections unless other antibacterial medicines commonly recommended for these infections cannot be used.

Importantly, fluoroquinolones should generally be avoided in patients who have previously had serious side effects with a fluoroquinolone or quinolone antibiotic. They should be used with special caution in the elderly, patients with kidney disease and those who have had an organ transplantation because these patients are at a higher risk of tendon injury. Since the use of a corticosteroid with a fluoroquinolone also increases this risk, combined use of these medicines should be avoided.

Please excuse me for not knowing exactly how European drug regulation works (and please correct me if I am wrong), but it looks like the EMA makes recommendations, then the various European governments pass down instructions to their citizens.

The UK government web site gave the following recommendations to healthcare providers:

Advice for healthcare professionals:

  • systemic (by mouth, injection, or inhalation) fluoroquinolones can very rarely cause long-lasting (up to months or years), disabling, and potentially irreversible side effects, sometimes affecting multiple systems, organ classes, and senses
  • advise patients to stop treatment at the first signs of a serious adverse reaction, such as tendinitis or tendon rupture, muscle pain, muscle weakness, joint pain, joint swelling, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects, and to contact their doctor immediately for further advice – sheet for patients

do not prescribe fluoroquinolones:

  • for non-severe or self-limiting infections, or non-bacterial conditions

  • for some mild to moderate infections (such as in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; please refer to revised indications in the Summary of Product Characteristics) unless other antibiotics that are commonly recommended for these infections are considered inappropriate (see below)

  • ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin should no longer be prescribed for uncomplicated cystitis unless other antibiotics that are commonly recommended are considered inappropriate (see below)avoid use in patients who have previously had serious adverse reactions with a quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic

  • prescribe with special caution for people older than 60 years and for those with renal impairment or solid-organ transplants because they are at a higher risk of tendon injury avoid use of a corticosteroid with a fluoroquinolone since co-administration could exacerbate fluoroquinolone-induced tendinitis and tendon rupture

  • report suspected adverse drug reactions to fluoroquinolone antibiotics on the Yellow Card website or via the Yellow Card app (download it from the Apple App Store, or Google Play Store)

I hate that they put “very rarely” into these warnings, seeing as adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones are woefully under-studied and the assertion that these effects are “rare” is based on assumption rather than fact. BUT, these prescriber guidelines, along with the EMA guidelines, are steps in the right direction, and hopefully they will cut unnecessary fluoroquinolone prescriptions significantly.

Here are a few notes about the proposed changes to the European Fluoroquinolone Warning Labels:

  1. It is recommended that fluoroquinolone use be restricted for uncomplicated cystitis, Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, and Otitis media acute.
  2. The warning labels are still leaving a lot of discretion to doctors/prescribers, and state, “In [indication] [name of product] should be used only when it is considered inappropriate to use other antibacterial agents that are commonly recommended for the treatment of these infections.” even though other parts of the warning label note that FQs should not be used for that particular indication. I worry that this may lead to some confusion among doctors/prescribers.
  3. The new warning label notes that people who have experienced adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones in the past should not take fluoroquinolones. “The use of [INN] should be avoided in patients who have experienced serious adverse reactions in the past when using quinolone or fluoroquinolone containing products (see section 4.8). Treatment of these patients with [INN] should only be initiated in the absence of alternative treatment options and after careful benefit/risk assessment.”
  4. The possibility of prolonged, serious, and disabling side effects of fluoroquinolones are noted. “Prolonged, disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse drug reactions
    Very rare cases of prolonged (continuing months or years), disabling and potentially
    irreversible serious adverse drug reactions affecting different, sometimes multiple, body
    systems (musculoskeletal, nervous, psychiatric and senses) have been reported in patients
    receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones irrespective of their age and pre-existing risk
    factors. [INN] should be discontinued immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any
    serious adverse reaction and patients should be advised to contact their prescriber for
    advice.”
  5. I’m slightly shocked that the risk of tendon problems is just-now being added to European warning labels, but it is one of the changes noted. “Tendinitis and tendon rupture (especially but not limited to Achilles tendon), sometimes bilateral, may occur as early as within 48 hours of starting treatment with quinolones and fluoroquinolones and have been reported to occur even up to several months after discontinuation of treatment. The risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in older patients, patients with renal impairment, patients with solid organ transplants, and those treated concurrently with corticosteroids. Therefore, concomitant use of corticosteroids should be avoided. At the first sign of tendinitis (e.g. painful swelling, inflammation) the treatment with [INN] should be discontinued and alternative treatment should be considered. The affected limb(s) should be appropriately treated (e.g. immobilisation). Corticosteroids should not be used if signs of tendinopathy occur.”
  6. Warnings about peripheral neuropathy are also added. “Cases of sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy resulting in paraesthesia, hypaesthesia, dysesthesia, or weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones. Patients under treatment with [INN] should be advised to inform their doctor prior to continuing treatment if symptoms of neuropathy such as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness develop in order to prevent the development of potentially irreversible condition.”
  7. Permanently disabling effects are noted again, “*Very rare cases of prolonged (up to months or years), disabling and potentially irreversible serious drug reactions affecting several, sometimes multiple, system organ classes and senses (including reactions such as tendonitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, pain in extremities, gait disturbance, neuropathies associated with paraesthesia, depression, fatigue, memory impairment, sleep disorders, and impairment of hearing, vision, taste and smell) have been reported in association with the use of quinolones and fluoroquinolones in some cases irrespective of pre-existing risk factors.”
  8. Disappointingly, the “Package leaflet: Information for the patient” is full of the words “very rarely” when referring to all the potential effects of fluoroquinolones. Again, the exact rate of adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones is unknown (and may be unknowable because of delayed adverse reactions), and I think that it’s a dis-service to patients to downplay the possibility of these serious and severe effects of fluoroquinolones.

THANK YOU, THANK YOU, THANK YOU to all the European advocates that pushed for these changes in fluoroquinolone warnings and prescribing. You have made an enormous difference, and hopefully rates of fluoroquinolone prescriptions will decrease significantly because of your advocacy.

*****

Floatation Therapy for Fluoroquinolone Toxicity

From the ages of 12 through 18 (1992-1998) I lived in a big, somewhat ridiculous, but interesting, house. One of the ridiculous but interesting things about it was that there was a sensory deprivation tank in the attic above the master bedroom. We never used the sensory deprivation tank, which we referred to as “the floatarium,” because we had no idea how to hook it up or work it, and because it required that we haul 1,000+ pounds of epsom salt up several flights of stairs and a ladder to the attic where it was stored. To give you an idea of how out-of-the-way the floatarium was within the house, we surmised that either the house was built around it or that a crane was used to put it in through the roof–there was no way anyone could have gotten it through the front door. Anyhow, it was a novelty that I haven’t thought about much since the 1990’s.

I bring up the floatarium because I just got done with a session in a sensory deprivation tank, and I wonder if it would be good for my floxie friends. There are a few components of floatation therapy (apparently “sensory deprivation tank” sounded too severe, so most floatation spas call it floatation therapy or REST–Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy) that I think can be beneficial to floxies.

First, it’s a way to deeply meditate, and meditation has many demonstrated health benefits. I found meditation to be immensely helpful in my journey through fluroquinolone toxicity (you can read more about my thoughts on meditation for floxies here, here, and here). As a facilitator for meditation, floatation therapy is wonderful.

Second, floatation tanks are filled with 1,000+ pounds of epsom salt, which is magnesium sulfate. Magnesium has helped to alleviate many symptoms of fluoroquinolone toxicity for many people. Floatation may be a good way for floxies to soak up a lot of magnesium. It’s significantly more concentrated than any epsom salt bath you’re likely to take at home. It feels like soaking in magnesium “oil” (many floxies have found topical application of magnesium oil to be helpful), and I emerged from the tank with my skin feeling silky, smooth, and as if it was covered in magnesium oil. Magnesium also has many health benefits, and I wonder if many of the health benefits that are attributed to the meditation and sensory deprivation aspects of floating are actually from soaking up a large amount of magnesium. I think that both are generally good. (However, if you have any sort of kidney issues, or sulfur metabolism issues, magnesium sulfate can be harmful, so please be cautious and talk to your doctor about these issues.)

Third, floating is relaxing. When you don’t have any visual, auditory, or tactile sensory input, you are able to rest, relax, and just be. A lot of floxies suffer from anxiety, and floating may be a good way to relax.

Personally, I felt pretty good going into the floatation tank, and I felt even better–with a nice sense of peace and wellbeing–after I emerged from it. I think it was good for me, and it may be good for many of my floxie friends.

Some of the studied benefits of floatation therapy are noted in Discovery Magazine’s article, “Floating Away: The Science of Sensory Deprivation Therapy.

“In the early 1980s, a group of psychologists at the Medical College of Ohio initiated a series of experiments that looked at the physiological responses to REST. Both within and across flotation sessions, blood pressure and levels of stress-related hormones dropped – effects that persisted long after the cessation of the last flotation experience. In 2005, a meta-analysis further confirmed that flotation was more effective at reducing stress than other popular methods such as relaxation exercises, biofeedback or relaxing on the couch.

These results prompted researchers to investigate whether flotation could help patients with stress-related disorders. The treatment was used as a primary intervention for disorders as diverse as hypertension, headaches,insomnia and rheumatoid arthritis; all of these studies showed positive effects in small sample sizes. Those suffering from intractable chronic pain particularly benefited from weekly REST sessions: their level of perceived pain dropped, their sleep improved and they reported feeling happier and less anxious. An ongoing project is investigating the use of flotation for fibromyalgia pain management with positive preliminary results.”

As the author of “Floating Away: The Science of Sensory Deprivation Therapy” notes, the sample sizes for these studies were small, but still, it’s interesting, promising, and worth a try for many people.

It should be noted that if your kidneys aren’t functioning well, or if you don’t respond well to epsom salt baths at home, floatation therapy probably isn’t for you. However, for many floxies, I think that floatation therapy has some interesting benefits that may be helpful.

For floxies and non-floxies alike, rest, relaxation, and even sensory deprivation are healthy and helpful. For those who have access to a floatation spa (they can be found in most big cities), it’s something to look into.

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I Heart The Floxie Community

DiegoMelanieJose

Diego, Melanie and Jose

Diego posted the above picture with the note, “Sometimes in life you come in contact with people whom God puts in your path! Although it was unfortunate that our paths crossed due to being affected by the same type of antibiotics we have supported and encouraged each other! Building our lives back to complete health! Thanks for ur friendship guys!”

Isn’t that lovely and awesome?

Diego also wrote:

There is something definitely powerful in uniting yourself with others who have a drive and determination to get better. This weekend I had the privilege of meeting other individuals who were affected by fluoroquinolones and we talked about our symptoms of course. However, there was conversation about our dreams, goals, and fire to keep pressing through this pain. I felt empowered to keep fighting and felt so much peace about knowing that we will all recover. We shared our remedies and gave each other tips about getting better. Our lives are definitely forever changed. I choose to believe that it will be changed for the better. Hang in there we will OVERCOME this!!! Now, I am blessed to call Jose and Melanie my friends. I can’t wait to meet more people affected by these antibiotics. Keep fighting, keep pressing, keep believing, YOU ARE WORTH THE FIGHT!

<3!!!!!

None of us would have asked to become a floxie. None of us would have asked for the painful peripheral neuropathy, the torn tendons, the chronic fatigue, the brain fog, the loss of money and relationships, or, really, any of it. But the awful did happen. It’s unfortunate, and if we could turn back time and re-do things, I think that most us never would have taken those drugs. But if we turned back time, and were never floxed, we never would have gained the friendships and community that many of us have as a result of banding together with other floxies. And since we can’t turn back time, we may as well appreciate the friends that have come into our lives because we are part of the floxie community.

As the wonderful admins of The Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Group (4,600+ people – wow!) always say to new members:

welcome to a group that no one wanted to join! Actually, this is the best group of people you will ever meet but the reason we’re here really sucks. The friendly folks here understand what you are going through and really want to help, whether you are a victim of fluoroquinolone toxicity, or a loved one who is taking care of one.

Indeed–The Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Group is full of friendly, thoughtful, wonderful people! People in the group spend hundreds of hours helping each other, advocating for each other, supporting each other, giving information to each other, and more. Floxies spend time and energy supporting friends who they’ve never met, who would be strangers if it weren’t for the unfortunate connection of being mutually poisoned, through some of the worst times in their lives. The generosity and caring of those in the community truly is amazing. Thank you to everyone who is part of this amazing community!

Floxie Hope also has a community of people who help, support and nurture each other. There are more than 15,000 comments on FloxieHope.com as a whole, and 10,000 on the home page. The thoughtful comments that reflect generosity, caring, knowledge, and a desire to help others, are beautiful and greatly appreciated! THANK YOU to all my wonderful friends who have made this site into a community. I am humbled by your generosity and grateful for your friendship!

I’ve had the opportunity to meet some floxie friends in person. Here is a picture of me with Suzanne:

SuzanneLisa

It is amazing beyond words to connect with someone who really understands what you’re going through, and what you’ve been through. Fluoroquinolone toxicity is so strange, and so unintuitive, that it’s really difficult for those who haven’t been through it to understand. Fellow floxies understand. They “get it” without struggle. It’s wonderful to have friends who understand and empathize with you.

Empathy, friendship, connections, community and understanding – they’re what life is all about. I am thankful to everyone in the floxie community for their friendship and for the wonderful community that has been formed! You are all greatly appreciated!

 

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Cipro Stole my Libido

Hormones Matter Logo

Also known as, “Post Fluoroquinolone Sex and Libido.”

Here is the link – http://www.hormonesmatter.com/post-fluoroquinolone-sex-libido/

Loss of libido, and other sexual side-effects, are common for floxies.  Just one more thing these nasty drugs take away.  It’s not okay.

 

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What is Fluoroquinolone Toxicity???

Cipro Molecular Structure

What is the pathology and what is the cause of floxing???  I’ve jumbled up theories of cause and pathology in the following list:

Is it an autoimmune disease/reaction?  ‘Cause that makes sense.   Many of the symptoms are similar to those of known autoimmune diseases like Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis or Lupus.  The connective tissue, tendons, ligaments, fascia, etc. of Floxies is being attacked.  If it’s being attacked by the immune system, well, that’s an autoimmune disease.  Which leads me to – AN ANTIBIOTIC TRIGGERED AN AUTO-IMMUNE REACTION – ARE YOU EFFING SERIOUS???  But it may not be….

Is it a serum sickness?  ‘Cause that makes sense.   My uncle who is an orthopedic surgeon thinks that it is.  This article describes floxing as a serum sickness – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC171716/

Is it a toxic reaction?  ‘Cause that makes sense.  A drug is a toxin, right?  So if we get it out of our systems, we’ll be fine, right?  Unfortunately, this, the simplest of explanations, is the easiest to dismiss.  If it was a toxic reaction, people wouldn’t have delayed reactions.  When I went to the doctor, two weeks after I finished taking Cipro, and asked her if my symptoms had anything to do with the Cipro, she said no because (she didn’t know any better and) the Cipro should have been out of my system by then.  She’s probably right.  The Cipro had been metabolized.  But while it was there, it did something horrible to every cell in my body.  Maybe there are lingering pockets of toxins that we can just clean up and be cured…. But I don’t think so.

Is it an inhibition of the CYP1A2 enzyme?  ‘Cause that makes sense.  Fluoroquinolones inhibit the CYP1A2 enzyme in the liver, according to http://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/issue/2007/2007-11/2007-11-8279.  Cures include smoking tobacco and eating broccoli.  You don’t want to start smoking, I wouldn’t/don’t…. But if it will enable you to walk, well, I can’t blame you.

Is it mitochondrial damage?  The general consensus among Floxies is that their mitochondria is damaged.  Another Floxie blog goes into this theory – http://www.floxedbylevaquin.com/p/mitochondrial-disease.html.  This may be an entirely false line of logic seeing as cellular energy and how energetic you feel are different, but mitochondrial damage may explain the exhaustion that Floxies feel.  Harvard researchers seem to be on this track – http://www.worldpharmanews.com/research/2481-dodging-antibiotic-side-effects

Is it dna damage?  Fluoroquinolones “prevent bacterial DNA from unwinding and duplicating” (according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroquinolone).  Do they also prevent our DNA from unwinding and duplicating?

Is it an inability to absorb magnesium and other minerals?  Given that magnesium and other mineral supplements are the only supplements that seem to reliably help most Floxies, and that many floxing symptoms are similar to that of magnesium deficiency this explanation seems pretty likely.  Unfortunately, popping a magnesium pill every day doesn’t seem to fix the problem.  Also, according to “Musculoskeletal Complications of Fluoroquinolones: Guidelines and Precautions for Usage in the Athletic Population” by Doctors Hall, Finnoff and Smith (do I have to site it correctly on a blog?), “Results of studies have shown that magnesium-deficient diets are capable of producing cartilage changes similar to that caused by fluoroquinolone exposure in both canines and rats, and dietary magnesium supplementation was able to reduce the histologic changes in rats exposed to fluoroquinolones.”  More information regarding the relationship between floxing and magnesium can be found in the article which can be found in Musculoskeletal Medicine, Vol. 3, pages 132-142, February 2011, published by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  Email me for a copy. Also, here is a list of drugs that deplete magnesium from the body.  Cipro and Levquin are on it –  http://www.jigsawhealth.com/resources/drug-muggers-suzy-cohen-magnesium

Is it a methylation issue / MTHFR gene mutation?  A lot of Floxies have been tested for the MTHFR gene mutation and all who have tested and reported back have had the mutation.  I honestly don’t know enough about this line of thinking to comment much on it.  Here’s some info – http://www.methyl-life.com/index.html.

Is it something to do with blood? Iron, chlorophyll and beets are all supposed to help production of red blood cells, and those are the things that help me the most.  Maybe our blood doesn’t carry oxygen as well as it did.  Why/how did fluoroquinolones effect my blood’s ability to carry oxygen?  I have no idea.  I don’t even know that the above statement is true.  I do know that blood tonics such as iron, chlorophyll and beets help me though.

Is it something that inhibits our absorbtion of uridine?  Beets make me feel better, and I’ve been having Brewer’s Yeast daily for about a year.  Maybe the uridine in those things is helpful.  http://www.spanimax.com/index.php/omega-3-and-uridine

Is it something hormonal?  I know that my symptoms get significantly worse just before my period and during my period.  Hormones have some effect on floxing – I just don’t know what it is.  Hormones may explain cycling too.

Is it something going hay-wire in our Gaba receptors?  Dr. Flockhart, a doctor who has seen many Floxies, believes that floxing causes interference with the Gaba receptors throughout our brains and bodies.

Is a neurotoxin produced by the damaged/bad bacteria after exposure to fluoroquinolones (or the die-off of the “good” bacteria that keep the bad ones in check)?  There are several interesting things noted in Beyond Antibiotics by Michael Schmidt.  Dr. Schmidt points out that both tartaric acid and tricarbalyte are noxious compounds produced by bad gut bacteria when good gut bacteria in the gut are not available to keep them in check.  Tartaric acid “is a known poison of the energy system of mitochondria,” and tricarbalyte “binds to magnesium and may reduce the availability of dietary magnesium.”  (pages 28-29) Dr. Schmidt also says that antibiotics cause the production of clostridiam which is a known neurotoxin producing organism (p. 44). And, on page 47 he says, “Whever a CPY enzyme is blocked or slowed, its ability to detoxify other drugs can be impaired.”  My thought on this is that the fluoroquinolones slowed our CPY enzymes then the NSAIDs, steroids, other toxins in our system, did other damage – and maybe that’s why each of us have so many different symptoms.

Also, John Travis reported in Science News (July 2003;164) that research performed by John F. Prescott found that certain antibiotics, such as the fluoroquinolones, the class of antibiotics that includes the name-brands and generic brands of Levaquin[R], Cipro[R], Tequin[R], and Avelox[R], actually are known to trigger a type of virus called bacteriophages (viruses that can infect bacteria) to change the genetic sequencing of the bacteria, causing the bacterium they have infected to start producing toxins. These viruses can act as genetic delivery vans, invading bacteria, such as spirochetes, often lying dormant, until activated by a change in the host (your body’s) environment. Once activated, these viruses insert their toxin-generating genes into the bacterial chromosomes. These viruses can turn basically harmless bacterium into killers through this genetic sequencing of toxins (Travis 2003).  Not only are these toxins released through bacteria die-off and not only can antibiotics actually increase the production of the toxins, but these viruses can cause the bacteria to rupture, spilling their toxins into the body (Waldor 2004).  http://www.benbrew.com/lb/lyme5.pdf

Did we have something in our system that “supercharged” the fluoroquinolone antibiotics?  Maybe we had trace amounts of silver in our system that made the FQs many times stronger – http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=silver-makes-antibiotics-thousands-of-times-more-effective.  Or, maybe we had some grapefruit juice in our system and it produced that enzyme that kept us from metabolizing the drugs.

FQs are topoisomerase inhibitors and that the primary cause of our issues is likely DNA and mtDNA damage from massive transcription errors as a result of the chemical inhibition of proper cellular replication. That is the effect of a topoisomerase inhibitor, after all. They simply affect both prokaryotic AND eukaryotic DNA, despite what the literature states.  Recent research has proven this about FQs. That is why you get the delayed effect. It takes weeks to months for those damaged cells to replicate.
http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/a/eukaryprokarycells.htm

Further, “FQs are currently being investigated for their chemotherapeutic properties. This research would not be possible if FQs didn’t affect eukaryotic cells.  FQs damage DNA by via inhibition of topoisomerase enzymes. This causes the DNA to not unwind, replicate, and then rewind back into the double helix structure correctly. This introduces transcription errors into the DNA itself. The body then recognizes these errors and attacks. This process should be over in a relatively short period of time. Unfortunately, I also think FQs alter the DNA of long lasting immune cells (killler B and T cells for example) which normally remain in the body for years or decades. I think once this happens, the body then develops the autoimmune issues. Also, it is a fact that once you cause the DNA and mtDNA damage, then you see a huge spike in the amount of ROS in the body. There was a study done of Indian men given Cipro for UTIs that proved that. What would you expect the body to do if you damage the ability of the mito to efficiently turn food into energy? You would get an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species causing a cascade of cellular damage.  Also, it is well known that the human body would simply fall apart without many types of bacteria. Now what if you introduce a chemical into the body that destroys and/or causes mutations in the DNA of said bacteria? I think all of what I previously stated combines to cause our issues.”

Did Fluoroquinolones cause us to become Histamine Intolerant or to have excess histamine?  Here are the ways that this makes sense.  First, drugs can inhibit the enzymes that keep histamine levels in check.  Fluoroquinolones aren’t listed as drugs that can do so, but NSAIDs, one category of drugs that can trigger a reaction to Fluoroquinolones, are – http://healthypixels.com/?p=1044.  Second, “Histamine is versatile–it helps to regulate body functions as diverse as digestion, sleep, sexual function, blood pressure, and brain function.  How does this one molecule do so many different things?  The secret to histamine’s multi-faceted nature lies in which type of cell and which type of receptor it binds to.  For example, when histamine binds to special cells in the stomach called parietal cells, they respond by producing stomach acid.  When histamine binds to receptors on the surface of blood vessel cells, blood vessels dilate, dropping blood pressure. Small vessels called capillaries become leaky and fluids ooze out of them, which can lead to runny nose, watery eyes, and puffy skin/fluid retention.  In the brain, histamine acts as a neurotransmitter, carrying chemical messages between nerve cells.” (from http://diagnosisdiet.com/histamine-intolerance/)  Also, estrogen and histamine reinforce each other, which may explain why menstruating women have flare-ups of their floxing symptoms when they experience PMS.  BUT, histamine doesn’t adequately explain a lot of other things.  First, Fluoroquinolone Toxicity is NOT an allergic reaction, at least not in the sense that we think of allergic reactions, with an immediate, severe reaction that can include anaphylactic shock and ceasing of the reaction when exposure to the allergen has stopped and an antihistamine is administered.  Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones can begin weeks or even months after exposure to the drug has stopped; after it SHOULD be fully metabolized and out of the body.  Also, antihistamine drugs like Benadryl, Claratin and Zyrtek don’t seem to do much for those who are suffering from Fluoroquinolone Toxicity.

Do fluoroquinolones damage the myelin sheath that protects nerves?  Fluoroquinolones damage or disrupt the Central Nervous System, the Peripheral Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System.  This leads me to believe that they damage or disrupt nerves over-all.  Perhaps the myelin sheath that protects nerves is attacked by fluoroquinolones.

Do fluoroquinolones cause a massive amount of oxidative stress on the body and does that oxidative stress cause the damage?  A 2011 study published in the Journal of Young Pharmacists found that, “There is significant and gradual elevation of lipid peroxide levels in patients on ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.”  They also found that “There was substantial depletion in both SOD (superoxide dismutase, “a free radical scavenging enzyme”) and glutathione levels” and that “On the 5th day of treatment, plasma antioxidant status decreased by 77.6%, 50.5% (and) 7.56% for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin respectively.” The study also notes that administration of fluoroquinolones leads to a marked increase in the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and that “reactive free radicals overwhelms the antioxidant defence, lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane occurs. This causes disturbances in cell integrity leading to cell damage/death.”

All of these theories make sense and it would be really nice to know which one is correct. Basically, what the hell is going on in our bodies?  Why are we falling apart?  Why do some people get better and others don’t?  Why do FQs effect some people and not others?  It’s all so confusing and frustrating.  If some research on where to even start could be done… that would be helpful.

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