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Regulator Information

FDA Warning Label – Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) 

FDA Warning Label – Levofloxacin (Levaquin) 

FDA Warning Label – Moxifloxacin (Avelox) 

FDA general warning regarding all fluoroquinolones

12/20/18 – FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients

07/10/18 – FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes

07/26/16 – FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects

05/12/16 – FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together

08/15/13 – Announcement that peripheral neuropathy is to be added as a serious side effect to the package inserts for oral and injected fluoroquinolones

11/23/11 Pediatric Advisory Committee Meeting, “Pediatric Focused Safety Review: Levaquin (levofloxacin)”

07/08/08 – FDA is notifying the makers of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs for systemic use of the need to add a boxed warning to the prescribing information about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolones and to develop a Medication Guide for patients.

11/5/15 – Briefing for the FDA’s November 5, 2015 meeting to review “The Benefits and Risks of Systemic Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS), Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients Who Have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (ABECB-COPD), and Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (uUTI)” can be found HERE.

11/5/15 FDA Committee meeting transcript.

FDA Anti-infective Drugs Advisory Committee – 62nd meeting – Development of Fluoroquinolones for Use in Pediatric Patients. (Here is an easier to read link on a Russian site – http://lib.znate.ru/docs/index-121694.html)

European Medicines Agency (EMA) “Public hearing on quinolone and fluoroquinolone medicines – Written interventions received from speaker requests

EMA Public Hearing on Quinolone and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics (video)

Summary of the EMA public hearing on quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics Public hearing held on 13 June 2018


Contagion Live, “Future of Fluoroquinolones: Risks, Benefits of Antibiotic Workhorse

Web MD, “Fluoroquinolones Overprescribed Despite Dangers

Carte Blanche, “Antibiotic Alert”  (also on Youtube)

You and Yours (radio show) “Vet ownership, Antibiotic warnings, Online movie reviews

Nature, “When antibiotics turn toxic: Commonly prescribed drugs called fluoroquinolones cause rare, disabling side effects. Researchers are struggling to work out why.

Nature, “Antibiotic-induced release of small extracellular vesicles (exosomes) with surface-associated DNA

Al Jazeera English, “Left paralyzed from Fluoroquinolone antibiotic toxicity

The Herald Scotland, “The crippling side effects of routinely prescribed antibiotics

Wall Street Journal, “FDA Requires Stronger Warnings for Antibiotics’ Side Effects

Washington Post, “It pays to read the warnings when you open up a prescription” and it was re-published in the Hartford Curant as, “Poisoned: The Dramatic Side Effects Of Some Prescription Drugs

Washington Post, “Prescription for Disaster

Washington Post, “Postal Workers Sue Maker of Cipro

New York Times by Jane Brody, “Popular Antibiotics May Carry Serious Side Effects” 

New York Times, “Certain Antibiotics May Increase Risk of Birth Defects

Video / Documentary PBS Frontline expose about fluoroquinolones

The Daily Mail, “Antibiotics got rid of her chest infection – but Jane says they destroyed her health

The Daily Mail, “Why ARE doctors still doling out antibiotics that have left thousands in crippling pain?

The Daily Mail, “Common antibiotic doctors say could give you organ failure as millions of Britons are at risk of devastating permanent side effect as a result of over-prescribing

New Zealand Herald, “Calls for more rules on use of antibiotic

Business Day South Africa, “Medicines regulator warns of severe side effects of two antibiotics

Health Europa, “Ciprofloxacin side effects dramatically affect the mitochondrial genome

KFVS 12 “Potentially dangerous antibiotics

CBS Local, “Paralyzed By A Prescription: Doctor ‘Poisoned’ By Common Antibiotic

ABC 15 Arizona, “Experts: Top antibiotic carries hidden side effects not listed on the label” (This story was also run on USA Today, the Detroit Free Press, ABC Detroit, ABC The Indy Channel, NBC West Palm Beach, WCPO Cincinnati, ABC 10 San Diego)

ABC 15 Arizona, “FDA Committee recommends label changes, warnings for popular antibiotics like Cipro, Levaquin”

ABC 15 Arizona, “FDA announces meeting to discuss safety of popular antibiotics like Cipro, Levaquin”

ABC 15 Arizona, “Woman warns of painful side effects from UTI medication

12 News Arizona, “Be warned: FDA issues new stronger caution about risk of common antibiotics”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Local woman says popular antibiotic killed her husband” (Kathy Dannelly)

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Local woman says popular antibiotic killed her husband” (Sandy Davis)

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Patients suffer devastating side effects from popular antibiotic”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “New calls for stronger warning about popular antibiotic”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “New medical research underway on popular antibiotic”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Gwinnett woman to testify about controversial antibiotic”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “FDA advisory panel hears from Georgia woman about Levaquin”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Channel 2 investigates Levaquin dangerous side effects”

WSB TV 2 Atlanta, “Clark Howard says near-fatal disease possibly caused by popular antibiotic

WBZ CBS 4 Boston, “I-Team: Patients Say Popular Drug Caused Devastating Side Effects” and it was also aired on CBS Philly, CBS Sacramento

WBZ CBS 4 Boston, “I-Team: Mass. Families To Share Horror Stories With FDA

CBS Miami, “Powerful Antibiotic Could Be A Prescription for Danger

CBS Miami, “Powerful Antibiotic Could Be A Prescription For Danger Pt. II

Fox Carolina, “FDA releases new warning about common antibiotics”

South Florida Local 10 “Popular antibiotic linked to adverse reactions”

NBC Charlotte, “Devastating side effects prompt local push to ban antibiotic” also shown on KTVE 10 KARD 14 and NBC News and InfoWars and King 5 Seattle and KGW Portland

CBS Sacramento, “Patients Say Popular Antibiotic Caused Devastating Side Effects

CW6 San Diego, “FDA strengthens warnings on potentially dangerous family of antibiotics”

Eyewitness 3 News CT, “Griswold man sues drug maker over side effects”

KSTP Eyewitness 5 News, “Painful Prescription: Princeton Woman Urges Patients to Research Side Effects” and the follow up story, “FDA Reviewing Warning Labels for Popular Antibiotics”

KSTP Eyewitness 5 News, “FDA Strengthens Warning For Poplar Antibiotics

CBS Dallas Fort Worth, “Dangerous Antibiotic Could Be Responsible For Deaths

CBS 11 Dallas, “Rowlett Woman Testifies About Antibiotic Complications

CBS Los Angeles, “Southland Firefighter Says Popular Antibiotic Poisoned His Body, His Life

KCTV 5 News Kansas City, “FDA evaluates popular antibiotic that patients say makes them sicker” and it was picked up by 19 Action News in Cleveland

CBS Chicago, “Safety Advocate: Powerful Antibiotics Being Overprescribed

WSET Virginia, “Popular Antibiotic May Be Causing Permanent Damage

CBS 4 Denver, “Patients Reporting Serious Adverse Reactions To Popular Antibiotics

CBS 2 Iowa, “Consumer Alert: Medication Warning

KCCI Iowa, “Central Iowa family warns about dark side of miracle drug”

KOB 4 Eyewitness News Albuquerque “Common antibiotic linked to serious, potentially-deadly side effects” Part 2 HERE. Part 3 HERE.

NBC News, “FDA warns some antibiotics can cause serious heart damage

NBC Connecticut, “Prescription Drugs Labels Under Fire

Metro Philadelphia, “How doctor-prescribed antibiotics left a Philly man disabled

NBC 2 Fort Myers, “NBC2 Investigators: Thousands call for stronger antibiotic warning

YLE Areena – News segment in Finnish

WFTS Tampa Bay, “It’s a popular antibiotic, but is it dangerous? Thousands report devastating side effects” also reported on ABC 5 Cleveland and WPTV Palm Beach

WFTS Tampa Bay, “Powerful and popular antibiotic sometimes comes without warning:
Adverse side effects and be devastating”

Click 2 Houston, “Thousands of adverse reactions reported from common antibiotics” and it was also aired in Orlando.

Bay News 9, “FDA Warns Cipro, Levaquin May Increase Aneurysm Risk

CNN, “Certain antibiotics may cause aortic aneurysm, FDA warns

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “Commonly prescribed antibiotics can cause potentially deadly ruptures, FDA warns”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, ““Cipro had fried her liver”: Virginia woman says common antibiotic killed her mother”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “8News Investigates: Could this antibiotic permanently damage your health?” and PART 2

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “Doctors left in dark about prescription drug dangers”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “FDA to hear patient complaints about commonly prescribed antibiotics”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “Patients share horror stories from commonly used antibiotics” It was also shared on WIAT.com.

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “Federal lawsuit filed against former FDA Commissioner”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “FDA issues new label changes for common antibiotics”

ABC 8 News Richmond WRIC, “FDA warns of mental health risks linked to commonly prescribed antibiotics”

WSOCTV Charlotte, “Action 9: Some blame certain antibiotics for devastating side effects”

WSOCTV Charlotte, “Update: FDA to hear from patients about possible side effects of antibiotics”

WSOCTV Charlotte, “Charlotte woman urges senators to police FDA better”

WSOCTV Charlotte, “FDA changes warning label on popular antibiotics

WSOCTV Charlotte, “Some worry doctors don’t know about new warnings on some antibiotics”

CBS San Francisco, “Patients Call For Strong FDA Warning After Complications From Popular Antibiotics Reported

KJRH Tulsa, “Levaquin: FDA fails to disclose additional serious side effects of antibiotic linked to deaths” and “Man warns those considering Levaquin of dangerous possible side effects”

Newsnet 5 Cleveland, “Levaquin: FDA fails to disclose additional serious side effects of antibiotic linked to deaths.

ABC Action News WFTS, “Popular and powerful antibiotic label fails to list all of the severe side effects.”

ABC Action News, “The worst side effects of one of the most popular antibiotics is buried in fine print

ABC Action News WFTS, “FDA warns antibiotic can cause fatal heart damage

San Diego ABC 10, “Levaquin: FDA fails to disclose additional serious side effects of antibiotic linked to deaths”

RTV 6, “CALL 6 Investigates: Patients raise concerns about powerful antibiotics”

RTV 6, “CALL 6: Mother blames antibiotic for son’s death

Fox 25 Boston, “FOX25 Investigates: Some blame certain antibiotics for devastating side effects

Fox 25 Boston, “Fighting Dangerous Antibiotics.”

Fox 13 Memphis, “FOX13 Investigates: Powerful antibiotics with potential for danger

WJZ CBS Baltimore, “Patients Want Drug Off The Market Following Crippling Side Effects

WMAR Baltimore, “FDA holds meeting to discuss Levaquin, other fluoroquinolone side effects”

WMAR Baltimore, “FDA advisory committee vote could spark changes in Levaquin, Cipro labeling”

WMAR Baltimore, “Overprescription of antibiotics creating resistance, while patients endure unnecessary side effects”

WMAR Baltimore, “FDA advises use of Cirpo and Levaquin be restricted

WSOC Charlotte, “FDA to hear from patients about possible side effects of antibiotic”

TMJ4, “I-Team Investigation: Antibiotic side effects that could damage your health

TMJ4, “FDA adds more warnings to popular antibiotics

WRTV 6 The Indy Channel, “FDA announces antibiotic label changes following Call 6 report

WRTV 6 The Indy Channel, “Drug maker stopped making popular antibiotic Levaquin amid concerns about mental health side effects

New Jersey News 12, “Kane in Your Corner: Did FDA wait too long to warn about popular antibiotic Levaquin?

KETV 7 Omaha, “Runners warn of getting ‘floxed’ following FDA warning on antibiotics

Times Union, “Quinolone or Stand Alone?

CBS News video, Antibiotics May Damage Human Tissues and Cells

CBS News, “Class of antibiotics gets stronger warning due to dangerous side effects

Forbes, “Antibiotic Alert: The Drug the Doctor Ordered Could Cause Deadly Side Effects”  

Forbes, “Yet Another Warning On Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Side Effects

Forbes, “FDA Warns About What Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics May Do To Your Aorta

Mother Jones, “My Big Levaquin Adventure

The Vancouver Sun, “Popular antibiotics implicated in nerve damage, says study with B.C. links

Articles from Dr. Mercola about fluoroquinolones
Antiobiotic Alert: The Drug the Doctor Ordered Could Cause Deadly Side Effects
Warning: Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics May Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

Video / Documentary specifically about Fluoroquinolone Toxicity – Certain Adverse Events.  It is also available on Youtube.  

Book – Bitter Pills: Inside the Hazardous World of Legal Drugs by Stephen Fried

Prohealth, by Jason Alexander Uttley, “The Poisoning of America:  The Rise of “Mystery” Illnesses Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia and Gulf War Syndrome”

News piece on Youtube about fluoroquinolones, also called “Bitter Pills” (though not related to the book, I believe).

Wall Street Journal, “Surge in Use of Cipro Spurs Concerns About Side Effects”

Wall Street Journal, “Lingering Pain from the Anthrax Attacks: Cipro Side Effects

Wall Street Journal, “FDA Panel Seeks Tougher Antibiotic Labels” and Business Insider picked up the story – “We’re finding out more and more about the risks of a common medicine once considered a wonder drug

The Ecologist article by Andrew Wasley, “Popular Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin Linked to UK Deaths.”  

Medline Plus article by Robert Preidt, “Certain Antibiotics Tied to Blood Sugar Swings”

News@JAMA, “Fluoroquinolones Pose Blood Sugar Risks for People With Diabetes

Health Day, “Certain Antibiotics Tied to Blood Sugar Swings in Diabetics

Point of Return, Description of Effects of Fluoroquinolones

Article in The Air Force Times:  New FDA Warnings on Cipro May tie into Gulf War Illness

Science Daily, “Risk of Kidney Disease Doubled with use of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics”

Science Daily, “Ciprofloxacin has dramatic effects on the mitochondrial genome

US News and World Reports, by Steven Reinberg, “Antiobiotics Linked to Retinal Detachment Risk: The Risk is Very Small and the Reasons aren’t Known, Researchers Say”

US News and World Reports, by Michael Schroeder, “Could Taking That Antibiotic Have Serious, Long-Term Consequences?

Fox News, “Common Antibiotics Tied to Eye Emergencies Study Says”

News@JAMA, by Mike Mitka “Retinal Detachment Risk Associated with Use of Some Antibiotics”

The Vancouver Sun, “Popular antibiotics to carry new warning about retinal detachment

Dear Doctor letter written by Dr. Plumb, a doctor who was Floxed

Dear Doctor letter by Miriam J. de Jong M.D.

Drug Safety Monitor, “Study Shows that Moxifloxacin Associated with High Rates of Hospitalizations Due to Drug Reactions”

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, “Quinolone antimicrobial agents: Adverse effects and bacterial resistance

Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, “Carpal tunnel syndrome after Ciprofloxacin-induced tendinitis

Mail Online, “Taking Antibiotics Ruptured my Tendon:  The Hidden Dangers of Everyday Drugs we Assume are Harmless

Diabetic Medicine, “Levofloxacin-associated hypoglycaemia complicated by pontine myelinolysis and quadriplegia.

Medscape Medical News, “New Evidence of Dysglycemia with Gatifloxacin

New England Journal of Medicine, “Outpatient Gatifloxacin Therapy and Dysglycemia in Older Adults

Medscape MultiSpecialty, “Antibiotics and Neuropathy: What’s the Latest?

Medscape MultiSpecialty, “Safety of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics: Focus on Molecular Structure”

Medscape MultiSpecialty, “Limit Fluoroquinolone Use in Light of Risks, FDA Says

Medscape, “More Fluoroquinolone Safety Concerns

Egyptian Newspaper article about FQs, in Arabic “Antibiotics:  A Two Edged Sword

Natural News, “Magnesium Heals Cipro Damage

News Inferno, “Study: Fluoroquinolone-Cortisteroid Combo Increases Adverse Effects

Boise Weekly, “The Cure that Kills: When the Side-Effects of Medications are Worse Than the Ailments They’re Prescribed For

Medscape Heartwire, “Cardiac Risks with Antibiotics Azythromycin, Levofloxacin Supported by VA Data

JAMA Internal Medicine, “Risk of Aortic Dissection and Aortic Aneurysm in Patients Taking Oral Fluoroquinolone

Baylor College of Medicine, “Ciprofloxacin increases risk of tears, rupture in mouse aortas

BMJ, “Fluoroquinolone use and risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection: nationwide cohort study

Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, “Spontaneous cervical artery dissection: a fluoroquinolone induced connective tissue disorder?

BMJ, “Fluoroquinolones and collagen associated severe adverse events: a longitudinal cohort study

Oklahoma’s NewsOn6, “Broken Arrow Woman Deals with Medication Side-Effects 1 Year Later

Green Med Info, “Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Linked To Severe Liver Damage

Los Angeles Times, “Downside of Widespread Cipro Use

Salon, “In Cipro We Trust

AZ Central, “Critics demand stronger warnings for potent antibiotics

The People’s Chemist, “Drug Rep Exposes Antibiotics: Risks Outweigh Benefits, You Have Alternatives

Nursing Link, “Clinically Significant Drug Interaction with the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme System”

The Legal Examiner, “Connecting the dots: Reasons why fluoroquinolones such as Levaquin destroy connective tissue matrices found in tendons all over the body”

Cape Breton Post, “Antibiotics linked to kidney damage: study”

David Perlmutter, MD, “Fluoroquinolones and Peripheral Neuropathy

Emergency Medicine News, “Adverse Reactions to Fluoroquinolones

Academic Life in Emergency Medicine, “Beware of fluoroquinolones: You, your patient, and the FDA

Counterpunch, “The Ignored Risks of Fluoroquinolones

2 Minute Medicine, “Fluoroquinolones linked with risk of aortic dissection and aneurysm

ID Week, “Fluoroquinolones Are Overprescribed for Routine Urinary Tract Infections

Star Tribune, “Former Edina band director faces health challenge with grace

Tech Times, “Fluoroquinolones Need Stronger Warnings About Side Effect Risks, Says FDA Panel

Medscape Medical News, “FDA Panel Says Fluoroquinolones Need Stronger Warnings

Medpage Today, “Evidence Lacking for Some Fluoroquinolone Use–FDA panel says risk-benefit data don’t support current labeling

Medpage Today, “FDA Warns on Aortic Aneurysms With Fluoroquinolones – Adds to already long list of issues with popular antibiotic class

KSTP ABC 5, “FDA Committee: Better Safety Warnings Needed for Popular Antibiotic”

The Times of India, “Widely-prescribed antibiotics need stronger warnings: USFDA panel

MPR, “Fluoroquinolones Linked to More Than Tendon Ruptures

Medium.com, “Fluoroquinolones: An FDA advisory panel urge drug companies for clearer and prominent label warnings on side effects

About Health, “Fluoroquinolone Antiobiotics and Your Thyroid Medication: Interactions

Fox 2 Detroit, “Monroe woman who suffered Levaquin drug side effects ‘wanted to die'”

Consumer Reports, “Fluoroquinolones Are Too Risky for Common Infections

Consumer Reports, “Make Sure Your Doctor Prescribes the Right Antibiotic: There are safer, better options than fluoroquinolones and other frequently prescribed broad-spectrum drugs

Consumer Reports, “Meds That Cause Blurred Vision, Hearing Loss, and More: Painkillers, antibiotics, and other common drugs can trigger surprising side effects

Consumer Reports, “Surprising Remedy for Deadly Hospital Infections: New study suggests doctors cut back on antibiotics. Here’s what you need to know.

Huffington Post, “Why the FDA’s New Warning Labels for Popular Antibiotics Matter

Runner’s World, “FDA Warns of Tendon Damage Linked to Antibiotics

The Facts, “WHEN THE CURE IS WORSE: Lake Jackson woman reaches out about danger of prescription drugs

AAP News, “AAP report details use of fluoroquinolones in children

Snopes, “Could Cipro and Other Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Cause Irreversible Tendon Damage?

BenzoInfo.com, “Hidden Dangers of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in the Benzodiazepine-Dependent Population

Stern (German Publication), “Why you should be aware of these antibiotics

New Zealand Herald, “Kiwi surfing legend Bob Davie’s family speaks out on fluoroquinolones, the medication they believe caused his suicide

The Pharmaceutical Journal, “EMA confirms suspension or restriction of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics”

Courthouse News Services, “Doc Claims Bayer|Falsified Cipro Data


Treatment of the Fluoroquinolone Associated Disability – the pathobiochemical implications

Journal of American Medicine (JAMA), “New Fluoroquinolone Warning

Journal of American Medicine (JAMA), “Fluoroquinolone Use and Concern About the Cerebral Vasculature

British Journal of Medicine (BMJ), “Fluoroquinolone-induced serious, persistent,
multisymptom adverse effects

Mechanisms in Medicine, video, “Fluoroquinolones: Mechanisms of Action and Resistance”

Medication Sense articles by Jay S. Cohen, M.D.

Chiropractic and Manual Therapies, “Spontaneous cervical artery dissection: a fluoroquinolone induced connective tissue disorder?

Chemotherapy, “History of Quinolones and Their Side Effects

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, “Fluoroquinolones: relationships between structural variations, mammalian cell cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity.”

ACS Publications, “Examining the Impact of Antimicrobial Fluoroquinolones on Human DNA Topoisomerase IIα and IIβ

Chemico-Biological Interactions, “Relationship of cellular topoisomerase IIα inhibition to cytotoxicity and published genotoxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in V79 cells.

Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, “Personalized therapeutics for levofloxacin: a focus on pharmacokinetic concerns

Mutagenesis, “Type II topoisomerases—inhibitors, repair mechanisms and mutations

Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, “Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.”

The Journal of Biological Chemistry, “The Mechanism of Inhibition of Topoisomerase IV by Quinolone Antibacterials.”

Clinical Chemistry, “Interference of Ofloxacin with Determination of Urinary Porphyrins

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Inhibitory effects of quinolone antibacterial agents on eucaryotic topoisomerases and related test systems.

Nucleic Acids Research, “Ciprofloxacin impairs mitochondrial DNA replication initiation through inhibition of Topoisomerase 2

Nucleic Acids Research, “The DNA cleavage reaction of topoisomerase II: wolf in sheep’s clothing

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Effect of Levofloxacin on Glycosaminoglycan and DNA Synthesis of Cultured Rabbit Chondrocytes at Concentrations Inducing Cartilage Lesions In Vivo

The Journal of Biological Chemistry, “Mechanism of Quinolone Action

Mutation Research, “Recombinagenic and mutagenic activities of fluoroquinolones in Drosophila melanogaster.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Biochemistry, “Quinolone Binding to DNA Mediated by Magnesium Ions” 

Austin Journal of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, “Combination of Molecular Modeling and Quantum Mechanical Studies to Understand Quinolone Resistance Mechanism of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Effect of magnesium complexation by fluoroquinolones on their antibacterial properties.

Mutation Research, “Ciprofloxacin:  Mammalian DNA Topoisomerase Type II Poison In Vivo

International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, “Analysis of age dependent changes of Topoisomerase II alpha and beta in rat brain.

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, “Ciprofloxacin-induced neurotoxicity: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms.

Journal of Neurosurgery, “Abnormal coagulation studies associated with levofloxacin. Report of three cases.

PNAS, “Target genes of Topoisomerase IIβ regulate neuronal survival and are defined by their chromatin state

Annals of Epidemiology, “Peripheral Neuropathy and Guillain-Barre Syndrome Risks Associated with Exposure to Systemic Fluoroquinolones:  A Pharmacovigilance Analysis

Journal of Investigative Medicine HIGH IMPACT CASE REPORTS, “Permanent Peripheral Neuropathy
A Case Report on a Rare but Serious Debilitating Side-Effect of Fluoroquinolone Administration”

Neurology Today, “New Support for Association Between Fluoroquinolones and Peripheral Neuropathy

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Temafloxacin Syndrome:  Review of 95 Cases”

Drug Safety, “The withdrawal of temafloxacin. Are there implications for other quinolones?

BMJ, “Ciprofloxacin interacts with thyroid replacement therapy

The British Journal of General Practice, “Benzodiazepine tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal syndromes and interactions with fluoroquinolone antimicrobials

The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, “Possible interaction of fluoroquinolones with the
benzodiazepine-GABAA-receptor complex

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin penetration into human brain tissue and their activity as antagonists of GABAA receptor of rat vagus nerve.

African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Evaluation of the effects of ciprofloxcin or gatifloxacin on neurotransmitters levels in rat cortex and hippocampus

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Quinolones, theophylline, and diclofenac interactions with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor.”

Pharmacology Weekly, “What is the mechanism by which the fluoroquinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) can increase a patient’s risk for developing a seizure or worsen epilepsy?

Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Seizure with ciprofloxacin and theophylline combined therapy.

Livewello, “Levofloxacin and Risk Of Seizures

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “The effects of quinolones and NSAIDs upon GABA-evoked currents recorded from rat dorsal root ganglion neurones

European Journal of Pharmacology, “Effects of quinolone carboxylic acid derivatives on GABAA receptor-mediated stimulation of gastric acid secretion and intestinal motility.

Neuropharmacology, “A Patch Clamp Study of the Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Biphenyl Acetic Acid on Rat Hippocampal Neurone GABA, and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

Drug Safety, “Potential Interactions of the Extended-Spectrum Fluoroquinolones with the CNS

Turkish Journal of Hemotology, “Ciprofloxacin: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Iron Overload?

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “The Fluoroquinolone Levofloxacin Triggers the Transcriptional Activation of Iron Transport Genes That Contribute to Cell Death in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Journal of Biological Chemistry “Non-antibiotic effects of fluoroquinolones in mammalian cells.

Renal Failure, “Ciprofloxacin-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

Case Reports in Infectious Diseases, “Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Induced by Levofloxacin

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin Increase Human Gut Colonization by Candida Species.

BMC Microbiology, “Comparative Transcription Analysis and Toxin Production of Two Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutants of Clostridium Perfringens”  FDA write-up

Current Medicinal Chemistry, “Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Quinolones and Analogs as Antitumor Agents”

Urology, “Quinolone antibiotics: a potential adjunct to intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer

International Journal of Oncology, “Ciprofloxacin is a potential topoisomerase II inhibitor for the treatment of NSCLC

British Journal of Cancer, “Ciprofloxacin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, “Structure–activity relationship and role of oxygen in the potential antitumour activity of fluoroquinolones in human epithelial cancer cells

Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers, “Infant Leukemia: Finding the Needle in the Haystack

Archive of Pharmacology, “From chloroquine to antineoplastic drugs? The story of antibacterial quinolones

Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, “Comparative Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity and
Induction of Apoptosis by some Fluoroquinolones with a Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line in Culture

Biochemical Pharmacology, “Quinolone analogue inhibits tubulin polymerization and induces apoptosis via Cdk1-involved signaling pathways

Cell Science at a Glance, “Lysosomal cell death at a glance

Toxicological Sciences, “Inhibition of Human Topoisomerase IIa by Fluoroquinolones and Ultraviolet A Irradiation

Experimental Gerontology, “DNA topoisomerases in mtDNA maintenance and ageing

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Modulation of Gyrase-Mediated DNA Cleavage and Cell Killing by ATP

Nature, “Unexpected Link Between and Antibiotic, Pannexin Channels and Apoptosis

Cancer Biol. Ther., “Ciprofloxacin-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells is not dependent on DNA double-strand break formation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry, “Cytotoxicity of Quinolones toward Eukaryotic Cells:  Identification of Topoisomerase II as the Primary Cellular Target for the Quinolone CP-115,953 in Yeast

Inorganic Chemistry, “New uses for old drugs: attempts to convert quinolone antibacterials into potential anticancer agents containing ruthenium.

Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, “Ciprofloxacin Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Generation of Aneuploidy in Jurkat Cells

Nepal Medical College Journal, “Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antibacterial drug, ciprofloxacin, on human lymphocytes in vitro”

Journal of Applied Toxicology, “Cytotoxic effects of the quinolone levofloxacin on rabbit meniscus cells

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, “The effects of levofloxacin on rabbit fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes

Journal of Leukocyte Biology, “Several Gene Programs are Induced in Ciprofloxacin Treated Human Lymphocytes as Revealed by Microarray Analysis”

Archives of Toxicology, “A Comparative Analysis of Chromosomal Abberations in Cultured Human Lymphcytes Due to Fluoroquinolone Drugs at Different Expression Periods

Food Additives and Contaminants, “Antibodies to the quinolones and fluoroquinolones for the development of generic and specific immunoassays for detection of these residues in animal products.

Oxford Journals, “Specific Toxicologic Aspects of the Quinolones”

Science Translational Medicine, “Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells”

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, “Toxicity of Broad Spectrum Antibacterials in Normal Rat Liver: The Role of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore.”

Cell, “A Common Mechanism of Cellular Death Induced by Bactericidal Antibiotics

Molecular Systems Biology, “Gyrase inhibitors induce an oxidative damage cellular death pathway in Escherichia coli

Medical Science Monitor, “Toxic Effects of Levofloxacin on Rat Annulus Fibrosus Cells: An In-vitro Study

Free Radical Research, “The mitochondria targeted antioxidant MitoQ protects against fluoroquinolone-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage in human Achilles tendon cells

Toxicologic Pathology, “Histological Examination on Achilles Tendon Lesions Induced by Quinolone Antibacterial Agents in Juvenile RatsF”

QJM, “Achilles is Not Alone!!! Ciprofloxacin Induced Tendinopathy of Gluteal tendons

BMC Complimentary & Alternative Medicine, “TOL19-001 reduces inflammation and MMP expression in monolayer cultures of tendon cells”

Clinical Science, “Effect of ciprofloxacin on the activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor κB, activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-interleukin-6, and interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression in a human endothelial cell line

African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Effect of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin
on some oxidative stress parameters in brain regions of male albino rats

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Adverse Effects of Antimicrobials via Predictable or Idiosyncratic Inhibition of Host Mitochondrial Components

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, “Dodging Antibiotic Side Effects”

Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research, “Fluoroquinolone Induced Neurotoxicity:  A Review


Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, “Toxicity of quinolone antimicrobial agents

The Ultrasound Site UK, “Fluoroquinolone Induced Achilles Tendinopathy

Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, “Diminished Ciprofloxacin-Induced Chondrotoxicity by Supplementation with Magnesium and Vitamin E in Immature Rats

Current Microbiology, “Ciprofloxacin-Induced Antibacterial Activity is Reversed by Vitamin E and Vitamin C

Archives of Toxicology, “Ciprofloxacin Causes Cytoskeletal Changes and Detachment of Human and Rat Chondrocytes in Vitro

Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, “Fluoroquinolone’s effect on growth of human chondrocytes and chondrosarcomas. In vitro and in vivo correlation.”

Veterinary Pathology, “In Vitro Evidence of Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Quinolone Treated Horse and Dog Condrocytes

Veterinary and Human Toxicology, “Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.”

Academic Journals, “Toxicology of Baytril

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin.

Archives of Toxicology, “Integrins on Joint Cartilage Chondrocytes and Alterations by Ofloxacin or Magnesium Deficiency in Immature Rats

European Journal of Cell Biology, “Integrins Mediate the Effects of Quinolones and Magnesium Deficiency on Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, “Effects of fluoroquinolones on cultured articular chondrocytes flow cytometric analysis of free radical production

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Magnesium deficiency induces joint cartilage lesions in juvenile rats which are identical to quinolone-induced arthropathy.”

Nature Reviews:  Microbiology, “How Antibiotics Kill Bacteria: From Targets to Networks

Nature, “Topoisomerases Facilitate Transcription of Long Genes Linked to Autism” (Note that Fluoroquinolones are topoisomerase interrupters and I wrote this post about the Nature article – http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/09/18/a-horrifying-cause-of-autism-dna-damage-from-synthetic-antibiotics/

Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practices, “Levofloxacin Induced Acute Anxiety and Insomnia” 

BMJ Clinical Research, “Drug Points: Sleep disturbance in children treated with ofloxacin

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Effects of Novel Fluoroquinolones on the Catalytic Activities of Eukaryotic Topoisomerase II:  Influence of the C-8 Fluorine Group

Pharmaceutics, “Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions of Antimicrobial Drugs: A Systematic Review of Oxazolidanones, Rifamycines, Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta Lactams

Chemistry and Biology, “Trovofloxacin, a Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic with Hepototoxic Potential, Causes Mitochondrial Peroxinitrate Stress in a Mouse Model of Underlying Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Journal of Pharmacology, “Trovafloxacin Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α by Macrophages: Role of the DNA Damage Response

Current Medicinal Chemistry, “The quinolone family: from antibacterial to anticancer agents.

Drug Metabolism and Disposition, “Trovafloxacin-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Liver-Derived in Vitro Systems: Comparison of Primary Human Hepatocytes to HepG2 Cells

The Journal of Antibiotics, “Modulation of Salmonella gene expression by subinhibitory concentrations of quinolones

Molecular Pharmacology, “Delayed Cytotocicity and Cleavage of Mitochondrial DNA in Ciprofloxacin Treated Mammalian Cells”

MIT Media Relations, “Pinpointing How Antibiotics Work”

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, “Antibacterial Action of Quinolones: From Target to Network

Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, “Damage to Mitochondrial DNA Induced by the Quinolone Bay y 3118 in Embryonic Turkey Liver” 

Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, “Medication Induced Mitochondrial Damage and Disease” (Note that this article is about drug induced mitochondrial damage generally, not about fluoroquinolones specifically.)

Alternative and Complimentary Therapies, “Mitochondria and Disease – What Clinicians Need to Know and Why” (Also about mitochondria generally – and the author didn’t get his note about what antibiotics damage mitochondria right, but it’s still a decent article.)

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, “Mitochondrial cytopathy in adults: What we know so far

CSH Perspectives, “The Maintenance of Mitochondrial DNA Integrity—Critical Analysis and Update

Biochim Biophys Acta, “Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, “Mitochondrial abnormalities–a link to idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity?

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Adverse Effects of Antimicrobials via Predictable or Idiosyncratic Inhibition of Host Mitochondrial Components

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Effects of New Quinolones on Transepithelial Electrical Potential Difference of Tracheal Mucosa In Vivo

Reproductive Sciences, “Role of Mitochondria in Ciprofloxacin-Induced Apoptosis in Murine Sperm Cells

American Physiological Society, “Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress: Cellular Mechanisms and Impact on Muscle Force Production

Molecular Neurodegeneration, “Oxidative stress inhibits axonal transport: implications for neurodegenerative diseases

Toxicological Sciences, “Review: Mitochondria as a Target of Environmental Toxicants

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, “Identification of fluoroquinolone antibiotics as the main source of umuC genotoxicity in native hospital wastewater

Human Molecular Genetics, “Mitochondrial dynamics – fusion, fission, movemente, and mitophagy – in neurogenerative diseases

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “Peripheral Sensory Disturbances Related to Treatment with Fluoroquinolones”

The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, “Safety of Fluoroquinolones:  An Update

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, “T Cell Mediated Hypersensitivity to Quinolones:  Mechanisms and Cross-Reactivity” delayed reactions

Journal of Pharmacotherapy & Pharmacotherapeutics, “Cross sensitivity between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin for an immediate hypersensitivity reaction

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Quinolone Arthropy in Animals vs. Children” (When you see the conclusion that these drugs are safe for children, please take into consideration that the study was commissioned by Pfizer.)

BMJ Case Studies, “Fluoroquinolone Use in a Child Associated with Development of Osteochondritis Dissecans

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, “TNF/TNFR1 pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in ofloxacin-induced apoptosis of juvenile canine chondrocytes

The Journal of Immunology, “Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Control T Cell Activation by Regulating IL-2 and IL-4 Expression:  Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin Mediated Immunosuppression

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Calcium Signals are Affected by Ciprofloxacin as a Consequence of Reduction of Mitochondrial DNA Content in Jurkat Cells

Muscle & Nerve, “Fluoroquinolones influence the intracellular calcium handling in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia.

Molecular Systems Biology, “Gyrase Inhibitors Induce an Oxidative Damage Cellular Death Pathway in Escherichia Coli

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Risk of Severe Dysglycemia Among Diabetic Patients Receiving Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, or Moxifloxacin in Taiwan

BMJ, “Diabetes Inspidus Induced by Ofloxacin

Medical Hypotheses, “Fluoroquinolone antibiotics and type 2 diabetes mellitus

British Journal of Pharmacology, “Increase in insulin release from rat pancreatic islets by quinolone antibiotics.

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, “Effect of fluoroquinolones on mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta cells.

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Safety Concerns with Fluoroquinolones

Canadian Medical Association Journal, “Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Associated With the Use of Fluoroquinolones”

American Journal of Kidney Diseases, “Levofloxacin-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis.”

Toxicology Letters, “Disturbance of Cellular Glucose Transport by Two Prevalently Used Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Involves Glucose Transporter Type 1”  

The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), “Oral Fluoroquinolones and the Risk of Retinal Detachment” 

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Association between recent use of fluoroquinolones and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a population-based cohort study.

Journal of Rheumatology, “Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility revealed by myalgia and rhabdomyolysis during fluoroquinolone treatment.”

Intensive Care Medicine, “Moxifloxacin-induced rhabdomyolysis

Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Acute Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Ofloxacin/Levofloxacin Therapy

Hindawi, “Acute Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Coadministration of Levofloxacin and Simvastatin in a Patient with Normal Renal Function

BMJ Case Reports, “Ciprofloxacin and statin interaction: a cautionary tale of rhabdomyolysis.”


Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin on Adult Human Cartilage In Vitro

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM & R) “Musculoskeletal Complications of Fluoroquinolones: Guidelines and Precautions for Usage in the Athletic Population

The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, “The Risk of Fluoroquinolone-induced Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture: What Does The Clinician Need To Know?

Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, “Levofloxacin-Induced Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Clinical Update, “Drug induced muscle disorders

Chang Gung Medical Journal, “Fluoroquinolone-associated Tendinopathy

The American Journal of Sports Medicine, “Fluoroquinolones Impair Tendon Healing in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model – A Preliminary Study

Toxicologic Pathology, “Toxic Effects of Quinolone Antibacterial Agents on the Musculoskeletal System in Juvenile Rats

Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research, “Possible involvement of nitric oxide in the quinolone-induced tendon lesions in rats.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Pefloxacin-Induced Achilles Tendon Toxicity in Rodents: Biochemical Changes in Proteoglycan Synthesis and Oxidative Damage to Collagen

Physical Therapy, “Physical Therapist Management of Fluoroquinolone-Induced Achilles Tendinopathy

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Characterization of fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon toxicity in rats: comparison of toxicities of 10 fluoroquinolones and effects of anti-inflammatory compounds.

BMC Ophthalmology, “Effect of topical fluoroquinolones on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea

Current Pharmaceutical Design, “Hypersensitivity Reactions to Ophthalmic Products

Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology, “Deciphering the pathogenesis of tendinopathy: a three-stages process

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “Contribution of Reactive Oxygen Species to Pathways of Quinolone Mediated Bacterial Cell Death

The American Journal of Sports Medicine, “The Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Tendon, Paratenon, and Capsular Fibroblast Metabolism

Toxicology, “Fluoroquinolones cause changes in extracellular matrix, signalling proteins, metalloproteinases and caspase-3 in cultured human tendon cells

The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, “Fluoroquinolone Induced Tendinopathy: Etiology and Preventative Measures

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Fluoroquinolone-Associated Tendinopathy: A Critical Review of the Literature

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, “Synergystic Effects of Dexamethasone and Quinolones on Human Derived Tendon Cells

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Ultrastructure of Achilles Tendons of Rats Treated with Ofloxacin and Fed a Normal or Magnesium Deficient Diet

Laboratorie de Toxicologie, “In Vitro Discrimination of Fluoroquinolones Toxicity on Tendon Cells:  Involvement of Oxidative Stress

Arthritis and Rheumatism, “Ciprofloxacin Mediated Cell Proliferation Inhibition and G2 M Cell Cycle Arrest in Rat Tendon Cells”

BMJ, “FDA adds “black box” warning label to fluoroquinolone antibiotics

Journal of Young Pharmacists, “Oxidative Stress Induced by Fluoroquinolones on Treatment for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Indian Patients

Drug and Chemical Toxicology, “Ciprofloxacin‐Induced Glutathione Redox Status Alterations in Rat Tissues

Journal of Hazardous Materials, “Oxidative stress response of two fluoroquinolones with catalase and erythrocytes: a combined molecular and cellular study.”

International Science Index, “Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Administration on Some Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat

Molecular Degeneration, “Oxidative stress inhibits axonal transport: implications for neurodegenerative diseases

Chemotherapy, “Fleroxacin Enhancement of Superoxide Production by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: The Role of Protein Kinases

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, “Participation of reactive oxygen species in phototoxicity induced by quinolone antibacterial agents

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, “Photolocalized purpura during ciprofloxacin therapy.

Toxicology Letters, “Mechanisms of quinolone phototoxicity

Nucleic Acids Research, “DNA repair inhibition by UVA photoactivated fluoroquinolones and vemurafenib

Dermatology Online Journal, “Stasis Dermatitis as a Complication of Recurrent Levofloxacin-Associated Bilateral Leg Edema

Drug Metabolism and Disposition, “Acyl Glucuronidation of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics by the UDP-Gulucuronosyltransferase 1A Subfamily in Human Liver Microsomes

Current Drug Metabolism, “Acyl Glucuronides: Mechanistic Role in Drug Toxicity?

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, “Metabolic activation of carboxylic acids

Molecular Interventions, “Mechanisms of Pathogenesis in Drug Hepatoxicity Putting the Stress on Mitochondria

Medical Hypotheses, “Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: A potential new
field in medicine and pharmacology

African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Ultra structural study of gentamicin and ofloxacin effect
on testis tissue in rats: Light and transmission electron microscopy

Chemico-biological Interactions, “Trovafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with hepatotoxic potential, causes mitochondrial peroxynitrite stress in a mouse model of underlying mitochondrial dysfunction.”

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, “Risk of hepatotoxicity associated with fluoroquinolones: A national case-control safety study

The Journal of Pharmacology, “In Vetro Discrimination of Fluoroquinolones on Tendon Cells: Involvement of Oxidative Stress”

Journal of Pharmacy Practice, “What Role do Fluoroquinolone Antimicrobial Agents Play in Cardiac Dysfunction and Altered Glycemic Control?

Annals of Family Medicine, “Azithromycin and Levofloxacin Use and Increased Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Death

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “Quinolone-induced QT interval prolongation: a not-so-unexpected class effect

Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, “Proarrhythmia as a class effect of quinolones: increased dispersion of repolarization and triangulation of action potential predict torsades de pointes.

Emergency Medicine News, “Adverse Reactions to Fluoroquinolones”

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “Mechanisms of quinolone action and microbial response

BMC Infectious Diseases, “Unnecessary Use of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Hospitalized Patients”

Mayo Clinic Proceedings, “The Fluoroquinolones” (“Because they may affect the development of cartilage, all fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in children, adolescents, and pregnant or breast-feeding women.”)

Clinical Infectious Diseases, “Antimicrobial Safety: Focus on Fluoroquinolones

Drug Safety (Journal), “Drug Interactions with Quinolone Antibacterials

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Florida College of Medicine, “4 Quinolones Cause a Selective Loss of Mitochondrial DNA from Mouse L1210 Leukemia Cells

International Journal of Oncology, “Ciprofloxacin is a potential topoisomerase II inhibitor for the treatment of NSCLC

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Ciprofloxacin, a Quinolone Carboxylic Acid Compound Active Against Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Protein Binding: Do We Ever Learn?

Post Marketing Surveillance, “NSAIDs Quinolones and Convulsions: An Epidemiologic Approach

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Neurologic adverse effects during concomitant treatment with ciprofloxacin, NSAIDS, and chloroquine: possible drug interaction.”

Canadian Family Physician, “Case report: severe neurologic reaction to ciprofloxacin.

IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, “Ciprofloxacin induced hormonal changes in the thyroid gland of rats and Anti-oxidant vitamin A, C and E as rescue agents

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with Fluoroquinolones

Neurology, “Oral fluoroquinolone use and risk of peripheral neuropathy

The Journal of Family Practice, “The Perils of Prescribing Fluoroquinolones

The European Respiratory Journal, “Ciprofloxacin-induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Effect of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on some
oxidative stress parameters in brain regions of male albino rats

JAMA Ophthalmology, “Acute Psychosis Following the Use of Topical Ciprofloxacin

Urology, “Ciprofloxacin-induced acute psychosis

Indian Journal of Psychiatry, “Levofloxacin-induced acute psychosis

The American Journal of Medicine, “Acute psychoses associated with the use of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, “Ofloxacin Induced Hypomania

Journal of Psychopharmacology, “Antimicrobial-induced mania (antibiomania): a review of spontaneous reports.

Connecticut Medicine, “A Possible Case of Levofloxacin Associated Amnesia, Depression, and Paresthesia

Indian Journal of Psychiatry, “Levofloxacin Induced Acute Psychosis

Indian Journal of Pharmacology, “Ofloxacin-induced hallucinations

Neurological Sciences, “Levofloxacin-induced delirium

Drug Safety, “Quinolones: review of psychiatric and neurological adverse reactions.

General Hospital Psychiatry, “Levofloxacin-induced delirium with psychotic features.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, “Neurotoxic effects associated with antibiotic use: management considerations

Annals of Pharmacotherapy, “Association of a Tourette-like syndrome with ofloxacin.

Journal of Rheumatology, “Achilles Tendinopathy After Treatment With Ophthalmic Moxifloxacin

Journal of Medical Microbiology, “Comparison of the Effects of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Ciprofloxacin and Colistin on the Morphology of Cardiolipin Domains in Escherichia Coli Membranes

Biophysical Journal, “Characterization of the Interactions between Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics and Lipids: a Multitechnique Approach

Brain Research, “Effects of the quinoline derivatives quinine, quinidine, and chloroquine on neuromuscular transmission.”

Clinics and Practice, “Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Symptoms in a Patient Presenting with Back Pain

Biomed Central: Journal of Medical Case Reports, “Death Following Bilateral Complete Achilles Tendon Rupture in a Patient on Fluoroquinolone Therapy:  A Case Report


Journal of the American Dental Association, “Drug interactions in dentistry: the importance of knowing your CYPs.


Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, “Interaction of pefloxacin and enoxacin with the human cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2

Drug Metabolism and Disposition, “Fluoroquinolone antibiotics inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated microsomal drug metabolism in rat and human.

Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, “Ciprofloxacin-induced erythema multiforme

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, “Antimicrobial effect of diallyl sulphide on Campylobacter jejuni biofilms”  GARLIC is more effective against resistant biofilms than Ciprofloxacin.

International Journal of Tissue Reactions, “Effect of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin injection on permeability of the tail vein in mice and skin microvasculature in rats.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Characterization of Histamine Release Induced by Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents In-vivo and In-vitro

Archives of Toxicology, “Differential response of mast cells separated from various organs and basophils of dogs to the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial levofloxacin

Current Pharmaceutical Design, “Hypersensitivity Reactions to Quinolones

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, “How do basic secretagogues activate mast cells?

Nature, “Identification of a mast-cell-specific receptor crucial for pseudo-allergic drug reactions

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, “T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to quinolones: mechanisms and cross-reactivity

Current Pharmaceutical Design, “Editorial [Hot Topic: An Update on the Diagnosis of Allergic and Non-Allergic Drug Hypersensitivity (Executive Editors: M.T. Ventura and A. Romano) ]

New Trends in Allergy III, “Adverse Reactions to Quinolones

ProQuest, “Editorial [Hot Topic: An Update on the Diagnosis of Allergic and Non-Allergic Drug Hypersensitivity (Executive Editors: M.T. Ventura and A. Romano) ]

Current Pharmaceutical Design, “Type II Topoisomerases as Targets for Quinolone Antibacterials Turning Dr. Jekyll into Mr. Hyde.

Human & Experimental Toxicology, “Structural and functional changes by Ciprofloxacin of rat submandibular gland.

Clinical Infectious Disease, “Clinical-trial design and selected drug safety issues for community acquired pneumonia

Drug Metabolism and Disposition, “Quantitative Brain Microdialysis Study on the Mechanism of Quinolones Distribution in the Central Nervous System

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, “Quinolone antibiotics in therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits.”

BMJ Open, “Fluoroquinolones and collagen associated severe adverse events: a longitudinal cohort study

A NEW THEORY OF FLUOROQUINOLONE-ASSOCIATED DISABILITY: Impurity-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Impaired Detoxification of Aldehydes

Yes, I know that wikipedia isn’t the most credible source, but these articles have good information and citations and they’re easy to read:

Other Research

Dropbox file of Fluoroquinolone Research


Adverse Events


Quinolone Vigilance Foundation

The Flox Report

Fluoroquinolone Victims Advocacy Network

Forum for German speakers – http://fluorchinolone-forum.de/

The Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Group on Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/groups/floxies/

Subreddit for floxies – https://www.reddit.com/r/floxies/


Cipro is Poison!

Hurt by Levaquin

How Cipro Destroyed My Life

Surviving Cipro

Dystopian Flower Garden

Cipro Poisoning: Have You Been Floxed?

My Quin Story

Cow Suit Saturday



Johnson & Johnson Levaquin Reaction Pain Art


Levaquin Hurt Me

No Cipro Please

Quick Health Notes, “Fluoroquinolones Can Cause Fibromyalgia


Beyond the Mirror:  The Scary Monster has Appeared


Then Came Michael

Getting Healthier Now


Fluoroquinolone Toxicity of the Thyroid

Maladies and Misadventures

My Post Ciprofloxacin Life

Rosebud’s Blog

Betsy’s Message

Mountains and Mustard Seeds

Cipro… A RX for Disaster

Barefoot Aya

Unforgotten Dreamer

Floxie Lady


Stories of Adverse Effects

Facebook Fluoroquinolone Wall of Pain containing various stories of pain and suffering told by victims of fluoroquinolone toxicity. Click on the photos and scroll through them for the stories.


Ask a Patient

Consumer Affairs: Cipro

FQ Victims 

Oliver Newell’s story


Mark won a bike race about 2 years post-floxing. Go Mark! You rock!!! 

This Needs to Stop

Girl, 2, in brave battle against arthritis after being bedridden for months with mystery illness

AWESOME article about the failure of the FDA to protect American consumers

Law firms


TorHoerman Law 

The Peterson Firm / Drugwatch

Saiontz & Kirk

Parker / Waichman

Baron & Budd

Morgan & Morgan

Clarkson Law Firm

Gallagher & Kennedy

Bernstein Leibhard LLP

Van Wey Law

Einstein Law / Lawyershop


Doctors Choose the Strongest Types of Drugs when Choosing Antibiotics

A Statement of Hope by Dr. Savely Yurkovsky

This is disgusting. A fluoroquinolone that has been removed from the market because it killed people was tested extensively on Nigerian children. It killed them.

Dartmouth, “Deconstructing Molecules: Cipro


Animals Being Hurt by Fluoroquinolones

Veterinary Medicine, Czech, “Quinolones: A Class of Antimicrobial Agents

Veterinary Opthamology, “Enrofloxacin Associated Retinal Degeneration in Cats

PLoS ONE, “Antibiotics Threaten Wildlife:  Circulating Quinolone Residues and Disease in Avian Scavengers

Drink Better Water with Berkey Filters