*The following is an individual’s story of surviving fluoroquinolone toxicity. It is not medical advice. Please see the disclaimer at the bottom of the story. Thank you, and please be cautious with all treatments.
I went to my local Med Express, on October of 2015 and was given Levaquin and some cough suppressants because I was sick, with supposed pneumonia. I took only 2 pills of Levaquin, and within 30 days, and it has destroyed my life. Recovery is slow, but it seems to be getting there. Another 24 months and I should be back to what I could consider *normal*. The mechanisms behind my side effects are still unknown, but some personal testing shows something is wrong with the cellular systems in my body. My Pre-Levaquin health issues only consisted of a very small amount of psoriasis behind my left and right ear. I was only on some topical steroids for it – Off and On for years. No other medications. My sleep schedule was quite normal for ‘me’, ie: 6 to 8 hours a day, and could stay awake for 18 hours with no problem. All post-Levaquin lab panels show I am the picture of health, except for the body temperature issues.
No doctor I have seen post-Levaquin could help me, and I spent loads of money on many of them. Most of them would never consider Levaquin did this to me; After the lethal assault on my body by just 2 pills of Levaquin, I started reading peer reviewed literature in November of 2015 to determine a cause and possible treatment. Now, as of this writing (November of 2016), 1731 peer reviewed papers later, this is a summary of my experience, treatments, etc. Some of the things I have tried are dangerous (ie: Self-IVs), but you have to understand that doctors that I have visited never once considered what I was saying was remotely accurate, many of them suggested it’s a separate health problem with no known cause (or treatment) even though there are mentions of worsening set of symptoms in a patient that was on Fluoroquinolones (Strauchman and Morningstar, 2012). I have been desperate for answers. Thankfully, I only took 2 pills of Levaquin because if I were to have taken the entire bottle, I’d probably be disabled.
Legal Options have been.. there.. but most Attorneys I have spoken with want $5k to $15k up front, and it would drag out for 2 years, they would settle out of court and I’d have to sign a terms-of-settlement notice which means I couldn’t talk about it. Do I really want to go through this for 2 years? No.. Modern medicine is a plague upon mankind.
My initial story on floxiehope had numerous problems with it, because when I wrote it, my mind was shot. I had trouble with memory recall, so I rewrote it to be more accurate of what happened to me. I have also tried to cite as much information as I could from journals. Maybe this will help a researcher, or someone else.
Levaquin exposure reduces plasma antioxidant levels by 50%, and Cipro, 77% (Talla and Veerareddy, 2011). In the same paper, lipid peroxidation occurs when antioxidant levels are exhausted, which causes cellular death, and ultimately tendon issues/collagen destruction (and perhaps others). Cipro exposure caused numerous changes to GABA, Glutathione Levels and others in the Brain of rats (Ilgin et al., 2015)
My current hypothesis for the mechanisms behind my issues:
- Inhibitation of Acetylcholine by Levaquin. Some antibiotics do cause this (Grill and Maganti, 2011), but there’s nothing in the literature about it for Cipro, Levaquin, for people.
- Gut floria homostatis is messed up. Levaquin nuked part of it, and the glasses of wine finished it off, until my GBA (gut-brain-axis) screamed for help.
- GABA disruption. (Kamath, 2013). GABA disruption caused by these kinds of drugs has nearly a similar description to BWS (Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome). Fluoroquinolones have been known to cause CNS stimulation (Moorthy et al., 2008; Farrington et al., 1995; Tom and Filipe, 2011). Fluoroquinolones seem to be direct GABA antagonists, as well as NMDA bounding agents. Even a paper by Kandasamy and Srinath (2012) states Quinolones prevent normal binding of GABA with their receptors, increasing CNS stimulation. A more recent paper (Chowdhry, 2015) also states Fluoroquinolones antagonize inhibitory pathways (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) and stimulates the excitatory pathways (N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA], adenosine) leading anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, tremor, seizures, hallucinations, panic attacks, etc. I never had the insomnia, just the crippling fatigue. This quite interesting, because in the aforementioned papers, GABA antagonistic effects can last for a long time, perhaps years, if there is a sudden, overwhelming antagonist against GABA/NMDA.
- ATP disruption / uptake / recycling issue (with ADP). ATP drives cellular energy production, and recycling of ADP in the transport chain. If this is disrupted, cellular energy production will be low overall and affect certain parts of my body.
- T2 intake into mitochondria chain has degradation. As anyone knows, Thyroid hormones have a profound effect on mitochondria biogenesis, energy, etc.
- Levaquin caused mtDNA damage, which was replicated. Autophagy unable to remove mutated mtDNA damage correctly.
- Collagen destruction in my brain.
- Small Fiber Neuropathy in my Vagus Nerve System.
- Nerve damage (PN). With moderate nerve damage, axonal regeneration does happen, but it can take as long as 26 months (Lee and Wolfe, 2000; Grinsell and Keating, 2014).
- CNS disruption. This would explain the crippling fatigue/overactive immune system (think how you act when you are ill with the flu, you want to sleep all the time)
- Genetically abnormal detoxification pathways which Levaquin triggered – My body has high levels of ROS, etc which cannot be removed to pre-levaquin levels from daily activity (Hypothesis) and/or Co-morbid impaired detoxification pathways that inhibit fluoroquinolone metabolism and excretion.
On October 2nd of 2015, This is the day my life has changed.. for the worse. My day job consisted of being involved in Information Technology, as well as a Part-Time First Responder, this has affected both professions.
This entire ordeal began because I promised someone I would pick her up some food on my lunch break, and drop it off to her; She, as well as her daughter, were very ill with some Upper Respiratory Track Infection (Later I found out it was bronchitis). Dropped off the food to her, September 31st, around 7:30pm (I didn’t go inside her apartment, but clearly wasn’t enough to stop me from becoming ill). Onset of illness was very quick as within 3 hours, I developed a headache, chills, etc. Went to bed after leaving work 90 minutes early, and woke up near 8am to that ‘I am ill’ feeling. Stayed in bed for nearly 2 more days, and on Friday afternoon I had to make a call to a family member to drive me to a doctor (I was too lethargic to drive.) I arrived at Med Express around 8pm and told the staff that I was sick. When I was finally seen, I had the following symptoms during my initial exam:
- High pulse rate (over 100)
- Low O2 stats (96% on room air)
- High Fever (101F)
- Respiration Rate was elevated
- Lung sounds were not clear and equal
- Low Blood Pressure
Doctor ordered Chest Xray and confirmed some kind of discoloration on my right lung, near the top. Diagnosed it as ‘Pneumonia’ based on my symptoms, and then prescribed Levaquin, 7 pills, 750mg, for 7 days. Doctor told me that if my fever did not go away by Monday Morning, I should head to the ER because I could develop sepsis (which is unusual for someone at my age and health status). I asked the doctor about the Levaquin and said ‘Is there anything I should know about this?‘ to which he said ‘Don’t take it on an empty stomach‘.. He made no mention of any interactions, side effects, etc (I had never heard of it before). Dropped off my prescription to Walgreens and headed home.
Next morning, picked it up and took 1x pill of Levaquin in the Parking Lot with some Gatorade, about 30 minutes later I noticed an electrical sensation in my arms, neck, hands, feet and others – Shrugged it off and it went away. Later that night when I was trying to go back to sleep, I started to see and hear things. My heart rate was 140bpm.. I was sweating. I was paranoid. That went away…
Then on Sunday, October 4th at 2:30pm, I took my 2nd and final pill; Within 90 minutes my hands, feet and knees were hurting so badly I could not walk or hold anything in my hands. It felt like my feet had been ran over by a school bus, set on fire with lava. My hands were hurting, it felt like I suddenly developed arthritis. I took a 200mg NSAID to see if that would help – It did not. The pain.. oh my.. the pain.. It was so bad, I started to become tired. Maybe a hot bath would fix it. It did not. I jumped on the computer and went to the FDA’s website and typed in ‘Levaquin’ into the search bar.. and I came across the very large print of it’s side effects. The first one I noticed, tendon injuries in people over 60, or with a history of corticosteroid use. I went back and looked at my med express forms, because they had asked me if I had been taking anything and I said a ‘dermatologist prescribed steroid for minor skin issue that I’ve had all my life.‘ .. No current medications listed. Wow. Just.. wow. They forgot to note that down!
I started researching possible treatments and what exactly what tendon ruptures were. The only treatment was time, according to pubmed. The pain was so bad that I could not sleep.. For the entire week, I slept a few hours, only because I used 3x packages of Epsom Salt in my Bathtub with very hot water, that caused my foot pain to reduced from 10/10 to a 3/10, enough for me to sleep, in the bathtub (until the water became cold). A few days later, I called Med Express and told them I am in a lot of pain and I am not sure what I should do – They told me ‘You need to finish the antibiotic‘. I said they are insane and I was fine before I took this medication and I hung up and stopped taking it, hoping the side effects would go away. They did not. After another week of agony and pain, I went BACK to med express and I spoke with another doctor the following Sunday, turns out he’s the head of the Med Expresses in my area. I told him my symptoms and he said ‘Take a look at this’
He rolled back his sleeve and showed me his right bicep – There was a massive deformity on his bicep that looks as if someone had used an ice cream scoop and removed half of his bicep. He told me it was from the same family as Cipro, and he took it in the late 1980s and it caused that.
I was prescribed Painkillers, Sleeping Pills and a NSAID. I took a painkiller nearly an hour later and my pain went from a 9 to a 0.5 in about 20 minutes. I felt alive again – I started to become hyper since I was in agony for a week. Mind you, I’ve never taken any painkillers in my 36 years of life at that point in time. Later that night, when I got off of work, I took a sleeping pill and another painkiller – I went to bed at around 12:30am and I slept for 20 hours, until 8pm the following day. When I awoke, I felt SO much better, the pain in my feet was about a 2 at this point, so I repeated the treatment for the next 10 days and I seen massive improvement. Everything was starting to get back to normal and I thought the worst was over.
I was wrong.
Early on October 27th, around 1am, I tried to drink a few glasses of wine so it would make me tired enough to sleep (I had drank 3 glasses a few days before because I ran out of sleeping pills with no issues). Finally went to bed after 3 glasses of wine; Next morning awoke to feelings of intoxication, foggy thinking, depersonalization, anxiety, short term memory problems, uncontrollable feelings of sadness, fear, cold hands and feet, unable to stay warm, chronic fatigue; I felt as if part of my mind was paralyzed. The mental stuff got worse over the next week and peaked around Nov 4th – Around Nov 5th just after midnight I went to my ED of my Hospital as 3 hours earlier I was vomiting up dinner because of anxiety and panic attacks. I was in sheer agony; I could not understand what was happening to me. I was seriously insane. I have never experienced anything like that before in my entire life. I have had ZERO issues, beforehand, with Wine at all. None. I hardly doubt that Wine would cause this at all..
I approached the Charge Nurse and I didn’t even know what to say. If I said the wrong thing, they might think I was crazy, and throw me in the mental ward. I tried to give her a quick summary, but I was not really sure what to tell her. I was admitted. Initial vitals were a little unusual, probably because I was scared of puking, and it was raising my heart rate. Nurse comes into the room and asks me ‘what’s the problem?’ to which I said – This is going to take a few minutes. I flat out explained that my health had seriously went to hell after taking 2 pills of Levaquin 3 weeks prior, and that I have been having numerous CNS issues that I cannot explain. ED Doc comes in, and asks me again, to which I was more detailed about everything. Doctor said the most comforting words I have ever heard:
‘We will try and find out what’s wrong with you’
CT, Xray, Blood Panel performed. Everything was within range. Except for elevated Alkaline Phosphate Levels (114, upper range is 120), everything was within range.
Before I was released, he told me that Levaquin and the other drugs like that are going to get pulled off the market in the future because their side effects are too dangerous for routine use. He also said that if I had came to the ER, instead of Med Express on Oct 3rd, it’s their SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) to only give a mild antibiotic first (ie: No cipro/levaquin). He seemed well versed in the side effects of these kinds of antibiotics, and said it’s just going to take time. But.. he could not give me a timeframe.
Was released at 5am, stopped by Waffle House to try and eat something. I was starving. I was also upset.. and I needed to be around people. I had an appointment with my former Primary Care Physician at 2pm the next day, who read my charts and other information from the ER. Her ‘conclusion’ was this was all in my head, and wanted to write me a prescription for benzos. I became quite angry, and stormed out of her office.
I made an an appointment with a Podiatrist, he did some checks of my feet and Achilles tendon and noticed some issues.. some being, numerous tendon ruptures, micro ones, in both of my feet. He came to the conclusion I have mild antibiotic induced tendopathy and not tendonosis due to only taking 2 pills of Levaquin – He stated long term usage of Levaquin would have caused tendonosis. On a side note, He did tell me that my foot orientation is not correct which wasn’t caused by Levaquin, but just ‘me’ not walking correctly (since I was a kid), using the right shoes, etc – So inserts were ordered. I was concerned about Neuropathy – He stated it’s likely I will continue to have some discomfort for awhile as a indirect reaction to the damage to my tendons in my feet/toes – Again, he was quite helpful and very well verse in the side effects of Levaquin (I didn’t even have to tell him about tendon issues being a side effect, he knew from my chart why I was there)
(After all that was said and done, I went on a buying spree and bought numerous supplements – Please see the end of this page to what worked and didn’t work.)
I am probably 90% right now, the lingering issues as of 12/09/2015
- Brain fog. I can only describe it as a nagging issue now unless I *think* a certain way I can’t tell tell it’s there or not. I am still not back to normal, mentally though. I was hyper, full of energy. I am able to work, but without the productivity I used to have.
- Unable to sweat correctly/stay warm. Normally I would sweat at any activity as I was a ‘warm blooded person’, now I can’t really sweat normally. My hands are cold. I can only stay warm if the air temp is 72+. I think this has something to do with the fatigue.
- Pins and needles in a few of my toes. Only happens when I am hot (ie: hot shower). Seems to becoming less and less as the weeks go by. I just took a shower and I noticed a very very slight P/N feeling, but no where near what it was.
- Slight numbness in my long toes, my throat (over my Thyroid), back of my neck and possibly other areas. Again, seems to becoming less and less.
- Fatigue. During the the peak of the Neuro symptoms in late Oct/Nov, I could not stay awake for the life of me and I slept 12+ hours. But now when i try and ‘nap’ I can’t fall asleep, which is normal for me. I am still tired but no where near as bad as it was 40 days ago.
- My perception of time is incorrect – My body doesn’t know the time of day or anything. It’s as if my internal ‘clock’ is out of sync with the rest of my body. This is probably related to the fatigue.
- I lost nearly 20lbs from Oct 1st till now – I was near 180 at 6’3, now I’m currently at 166 with a low of 159 about 30 days ago.
I think I am getting better – Slowly. My faith in western medicine has been reduced to ‘avoid unless you are near death’ because they are more concerned about writing you prescriptions for things you may or may not have, just to make money. Since I was poisoned, it has affected my life to the point where I am not myself, and I cannot fathom living as someone else (Brain Fog, Depersonalization, et al), the only thing I can do is ‘wait it out’.
I just hope the brain fog goes away and I come back to being myself.
June 2016 Update:
When I first wrote my story, I was in serious error. I was not 90% recovered. I was in denial about my health problems.. It’s been 8 months since I took the last pill of Levaquin. I had only consumed 2 pills and those 2 pills have changed my life. I’m extremely more careful and paranoid about modern Medicine (ie: take this because of that). I’ve visited numerous doctors and was tested for everything, MS, ALS, Parkinsons, Diabetes, Lupus, Brain Trauma and others. I had 5 full Metabolic profiles performed by multiple doctors which showed nothing wrong and I was ‘the picture of health’; I have been to more doctors in the last 8 months than I have been in 35 years. They were all generally worthless and wanted to dope me up on benzo’s and other insane medications. This has become quite expensive since my copays.
My acute symptoms during the month of October of 2015 till January 2016:
- 37 tendon ruptures in both feet (20 in the left foot, 17 in the right foot)
- Pain in my legs (Achilles), knees feet and hands. The foot pain was a 10/10 on the pain scale which lasted 30 days, then it came down to 5/10 until December, then went away completely by the end of Feburary. I could not walk correctly for months. A doctor wrote me perscription for painkillers and sleeping pills – which helped a great deal in October.
- Nightmares – Being shot, stabbed, poisoned, burned alive, hung/drawn/quartered, drowned, beheaded with a chainsaw, crushed, suffocated, etc. This lasted until the end of October, to which I never seem to enter into rem sleep – Until April.
- Lots of eye floaters
- Nerve issues, like abnormal sensations etc (Has gone away)
My chronic symptoms – Starting from the end of October. I woke up Oct 26th to the most terrifying mental and physical state of my life after consuming 3 glasses of red wine the night before.
- Crippling fatigue. I could not stay awake longer than 10 hours without becoming so tired (I nearly fell asleep driving). I’ve gotten better which I’ll explain, but it’s still not back to ‘normal’ for me.
- Unusually low body temperature. (96 to 97F)
- Abnormal sweating. It takes more physical effort for me to sweat now, whereas my normal self would sweat/be moist(?) in my armpits, groin area, feet, etc. It has gotten a little bit better.
- Stamina issues
- Always cold in the winter time. Normally a room temp of 70F+ would be too hot for me.
- Low heart rate
- Low sex drive
- Metabolism oddities
- Short/Long term Memory problems (which have gotten a lot better)
- Depersonalization / De-realization (which has gotten a lot better)
- Brain Fog (which has gotten better)
- Intoxicated feeling without the booze effect. (better, not completely back to normal)
- Crying, vomiting, extreme anxiety (which had gone away by the end of December)
- Body’s internal clock oddities – Normally you can ‘feel’ the time of day, but for me it seems to have been set in one specific timeframe (Hard to explain)
- Weight loss. I went from 185lbs Sept 30th to 159lbs November 7th due to the anxiety+vomiting. – But I’m back to my weight before.
- Warm/Hot showers made my tendons in my toes/feet/hands ache.
- Heart Palpitations.
- Dry eyes (still ongoing)
- Muscle atrophy from being in bed all the time.
- Alcohol doesn’t intoxicate me any more. I feel drunk in the head, but nothing else. It’s very strange – I wasn’t an avid drinker, but sometimes you’d just let go.
- Vision got worse. My prescription for my contact lenses needed to be changed (4/16) and the doctor tested me for retinal detachment. No signs of such a thing. She did say my vision got worse within 2 years, so much so that my contact lenses are now 2x ‘stronger’ than what they were. I cannot attribute this to the Levaquin, though (so keep that in mind)
I tried so many things between when my Chronic symptoms started in October and March, with no real progress.
July 2016 update:
Back in May when the temperature broke 80F for the first time, I developed an itchy rash on my right foot that spread up my right leg on the inside – Then it progressed to the left leg (facing my right leg on the bottom right side). I thought this may have been a bird mite infestation in my home from the nests in my bathroom exhaust vent. Orkin Supervisor noticed what appeared to be dead bird mites on my bathtub in the corner. I took care of the nests via Orkin and ‘bombing’ my house, and rewashing all my clothes etc. Dermatologist gave a general diagnosis of ‘Atopic Dermatitis/Contact Dermatitis’, Steroid cream given. The rashes were very itchy, and it spread to my right arm. It did not affect my body like stomach, back, neck, chest. So itchy, that I would intentionally rupture them so they would drain of the clear fluid. Since then I’ve been having periods of flair ups and flair-downs, which might indicate a food allergy. My supplements have not changed and I did not start on anything new in May. Diet was the same.
I looked over my recent lab panels and it showed elevated levels of Alkaline Phosphates (146). My Alkaline Phospates level on November when I went to the ER was 114 (Range is 35 <-> 120).. This is usually one of the things elevated in patients with Celiac Disease, but it’s also elevated in people that eat very acidic food/drink sodas (Raj et al.,2009; Kristensen et al.,2005). My total cholesterol levels did not indicate Celiac Disease – C.D patients have low LDL,HGL and Total Cholesterol, as well as multiple elevated liver enzymes. I cut out /all/ gluten for a period of nearly a week. So far, no rash/itchy, until 4 days into my test I awoke one morning to a very hot day and my legs began itching again, and new blisters were forming after I came inside from checking on the mail. So probably not a Gluten Allergy. I remembered that my dermatologist prescribed a steroid cream for years and years to clean up some dry skin behind my ears, and that does influence your Alkaline Phosphates levels (increases them).
I think I might know the cause – Abnormal sweating. One thing I noticed about the rashes is that they are all located near my hair follicles (sweat ducts). A year ago, temps in the 90s would give me a flush feeling in the face, then sweating on the legs, arms, body. That was normal for me. The other day I was outside in 94F heat (H.I was 101). I did not sweat for the entire 20 minutes of just standing outside, except for my back and stomach area. I have no answers to this but I guess if I went back to the Dermatologist, he’d probably want to try something else (Translation: Dope me up on more drugs). I never had this problem before Levaquin. My skin on my arms, and legs are very dry, and cool to the touch.
To be fair, I cannot attribute this skin rash to Levaquin, fully, But mind you I started developing the overall Levaquin neurological side effects close to November when outside temps were well below 80F.
(This is when I purchased Carbon60-OO (Fullerene) Check the end of this post for more information)
August 2016 Update:
I began a new appointment with a brand new, young doctor. She was recommended to me by others – She seemed to grasp what I was telling her better than past doctors. I decided to take it upon myself and print out everything relating to the damage that these kinds of antibiotics cause on the cellular level – 290 pages – Cipro based Mitochrondia dysfunction, etc to prove every Fluoroquinolones /do/ cause some type of Mitochrondia toxicity. I highlighted the ones that show damage and treatment, hoping she would entertain the idea of starting the IV antioxidant therapy I wanted in her office (The same one I had tried earlier). She just skimmed over my research, and wants to send me off for Sleep testing, then send me to either John Hopkins or WVU for more ‘testing’ … Sigh… This was the final straw for me.
I also noticed recently my eyes are too dry – I wear contacts but I never had to use any kind of Visine until recently. I didn’t think anything about it until one day I had to ‘pre sneeze’ a few times and I noticed my eyes did not get watery like before.
Body temperature is in the upper 97s/mid 98s now, and have been for the last month or so days. My eyes are still not as moist as they used to be. I canceled my doctors appointments at WVU and my local Hospital. No point, really. I just feel like it would be another waste of time.
I had a microbiologist read over this page, and then my health reports – He said this sounds like remains of a viral infection as I did not develop the neurological symptoms until 25 days after I took the last pill of Levaquin. I was then pointed in the direction of a paper by Pantry et al. (2013) called “Persistent human herpesvirus-6 infection in patients with an inherited form of the virus”. After reading over it, the abstract contains the following: “the data presented here document that some individuals with CIHHV-6 are infected persistently with exogenous HHV-6 strains that lead to a wide range of neurological symptoms; the proposed name for this condition is inherited herpesvirus 6 syndrome or IHS”
On p. 1941 of Pantry et al. (2013)
“Prior to treatment, both patients exhibited neurological symptoms including cognitive impairment
and depression with concomitant abnormal quantitative EEG readings. Six weeks of foscarnet
treatment resulted in the resolution of neurological symptoms and normalization of brain waves; however,
symptoms returned after cessation of antiviral treatment”
As well as this (p. 1945):
“Both of these patients have suffered debilitating neurological symptoms but antiviral therapy
resulted in marked and long-lasting improvement also documented by quantitative EEG [Montoya et al., 2012]. Currently, the two patients have no detectable U100 mRNA in their PBMCs and are free of neurological symptoms.”
And the most important part of the paper is this (p. 1945)
“There have been previous reports of in vitro reactivation of integrated HHV-6 by chemical inducers,
such as TPA and trichostatin A [Arbuckle et al., 2010].”
Could it be that Levaquin reactivated HHV-6? Even this paper and others (Tohyama et al., 2007; Watanabe et al., 2008) state clearly ‘These viruses persist after primary infection; viral reactivation is associated with a variety of adult conditions and complications including encephalitis, drug-induced hypersensitivity or drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and transplant rejection’ (Pantry, et al. 2013, p. 1940). Good news is that if this is the case (with me? and others?), successful treatment options are there for this virus (Montoya et al.,2012). I might look into this more; something to keep in mind, I guess. But my hospital stay back in November of 2015 showed negative for mono. Please note I am not trying to attribute every single thing I read on journals to post-Levaquin adventure. A cause would give me direction for treatment.
Towards the end of September, I came down with being sick; runny nose, cough, that ‘I am sick’ feeling, etc. Around the time my symptoms began, I also noticed that a cold sore was starting to form on my lip, the first time in nearly 5 years. I had some weekend plans, so I did not want do deal with a cold sore. I obtained some Acyclovir, 800mg. I began taking it as prescribed for a few days. It stopped the cold sore from mostly forming. I completely stopped taking it after 3 days. On the 2nd day of the medication, I noticed some unusual feelings and a reduction of fatigue, I was able to stay awake 16 hours, no problem. I do get tired, but the I cannot stay awake feeling from a few months ago has not been present for awhile now. Supplements/diet has not changed. Might be placebo. The mysterious rashes have mostly gone away (95%) by September.
I ran out of S-Acetyl-L-Glutathione (depleted the last bottle) after taking 6 pills a day (every 3 hours of wakefullness) in October. My energy levels seem to have stabilized, and my post workout fatigue is not as bad as it used to be. I need to keep doing these Antioxidant challenges for awhile longer. My next challenge will be one for the record books, I plan on taking 6 pills an hour, for 16 hours. My total GSH levels should be in the thousands for an entire day at least. My body temperature since August seems better overall as I don’t get cold that easily unless I am tired. (See my Carbon 60 information below).
During the first 10 days of Nicotainmidie Riboside treatment, my energy levels surged, but then I started becoming tired again during the day. I ceased the treatment Thanksgiving Day and my energy levels started coming back up. My evening fatigue spells reduced slightly. I believe this has to do with the autophagy functionality, which purges defective mitochrondia.
My current stack as of November 25th consists of CDP Choline, Niagen 300mg (Nicotinamide Riboside) and DHEA.
Supplements/Treatments that have worked (for me)
* Carbon 60/Fullerene (WARNING! Experimental!)
One of the most powerful antioxidants I have ever taken in my life. Fullerene has a very unique structure that is composed of 60 Carbon Atoms that form a hollow sphere, nearly ~1 nanometer in diameter (Kroto et al.,1985) – This sphere behaves like a free radical sponge (Chistyakov et al., 2013), has no known toxicity (Gharbi et al., 2005; Spohn et al., 2009, Andrievsky et al., 2005; Tong et al., 2011), contains antioxidant activity several orders of magnitude higher than any known antioxidants like Glutathoine (Krusic et al.,1991; Yang et al., 2014), prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage (Xiaoqing et al., 2008), restoring the level of Glutathoine in cyptoplasm and incorporation into mitochondria cell membrane to prevent lipid peroxidation (Prylutska et al., 2008).
According to a paper that describes how toxic, if any (Andrievsky et al., 2005) of C60 Fullerene and some other mechanisms which states the following:
“Nevertheless it is reasonable to mention that: (i) pure C60 possesses comparable and even higher anti-oxidant activity than natural anti-oxidant vitamin E (a-tocopherol) (33), (ii) micronized C60 demonstrates the powerful hepatoprotective activity, i.e., protects the liver from toxic damages (34).”
I did a blind test in August with 1 bottle of C60-OO and then just regular olive oil and took some measurements (Body temp 3x a day, how long it took for me to become tired, etc) for 3 weeks. The first 10 days were not the Fullerene, but the regular olive oil. When I switched over to Fullerene, I noticed an immediate change within an hour of taking it. I had
to have someone help me with the blind test so I didn’t experience the placebo effect.
Carbon 60, at least for me, showed the most improvement overall. Like I have stated before, Fluoroquinolones have a very long history of producing mitochondrial dysfunction, and any ‘supplements’ I take that affect Mitochrondia and my Antioxidant
levels in a positive way have a very pronounced effect on my energy levels. Some of the initial effects from Fullerene in my double blind testing:
- Increased body temperature
- Stabilized my post-Levaquin body temperature issues (ie: no longer freezing cold when a room is 75F)
- Energy levels increased – Still below what I think ‘was’ normal, but a marked improvement
- I seemed to have better olfactory reception. Not annoying, but when you eat your favorite food and you can smell it as it used to be (stupid allergies)
- I seemed ‘happier’ – Possible GABA expression changes.
- Mental clarity has increased by at least 2 orders of magnitude. People were been telling me I’m much more like my old talkative self. (Seems to have been permanent)
- Less anxiety overall.
- Vivid, Awesome dreams.
- My blood is bright red and my o2 stats on a pulseox are between 100 and 102 – I suppose oxygen saturation has increased. (Other c60 users are reporting it)
Some of the above is more permanent (the mental clarity has remained), olfactory responses have remained improved.
August 6th to the 16th – Control (simple Olive Oil)
|Date||Body Temp||Time Awake||Notes|
|6th||95.5||13 Hours||Caffine at super high dosages have no effect|
|8th||95.9||10 Hours||Very tired|
|10th||95.4||9 Hours||Was not feeling well this day|
|12th||95.9||12 Hours||Intense Fatigue at 10 hours|
|13th||95.8||11 Hours||Sudden onset of fatigue at 10 hours|
|14th||95.8||10 Hours||Awoke after 13 hours of sleep – Became tired again 4 hours later.|
|16th||95.5||10 Hours||I wanted to nap all day long|
August 17th to the 27th – Fullerene
|Date||Body Temp||Time Awake||Notes|
|17th||96.4||18 Hours||Surge of energy, similar to Whey Protein, but much longer lasting.|
|18th||96.6||13 Hours||Insonomia, and constant feeling of napping.|
|19th||96.8||15 Hours||Best Dreams I have ever had in my life.|
|20th||97.0||16 Hours||Olfactory changes started this day – Pasta sauce, etc smelled great.|
|21st||97.3||17 Hours||I actually felt like cleaning this day.|
|23rd||98.5||18 Hours||Was doing yard work all day, wanted to stay awake longer.|
|27th||98.4||19 Hours||Maximum – Woke up at 8am, and went to bed at 2am|
* Nicotinamide Riboside.
According to the peer reviewed literature, Nicotinamide Riboside, a vitamin B3 and NAD precursor, boosts NAD levels and induces mitochondrial biogenesis, preventing mitochondrial abnormalities like mtDNA deletion formation, stimulates unfolding of protein response to offer protection on certain mitochondrial diseases (Khan et al., 2014), neuroprotecting (Chi and Sauve, 2013), liver repair (Mukherjee et al., 2016), engages in mitochondrial quality control to eliminate mtDNA defects by lysosomes (Jang et al., 2012; Brady and Brady, 2015) Nicotinamide Riboside also has a long half life in the body, about 6 hours (Trammell et al., 2016a) Nicotinamide Riboside is also present in Cow Milk (Trammell et al., 2016b), which may explain why Whey Protein + Milk was making my energy levels more normal. Nicotinamide Riboside is quite safe, even up to 1000 mg/kg (Conze et al., 2016). I started taking this in October. 3x pills a day, but have backed off to 1 pill a day. (300mg). Some of the noticeable effects:
- Improved energy levels
- Body temperature back to normal or just above normal. Probing shows 98.5 to 98.9. Cold weather does not bother me anymore and I actually feel pre-Levaquin (can’t sleep with a heavy blanket on, which is normal). I am physically more warm
and not as cold intolerant as before.
- Reduced overall fatigue. I would rate my current fatigue levels as a 3/10, where 11 months ago I was a 9/10 . My diet has not changed at all and I have not been taking anything else except for DHEA, which I was taking before NR. (no Fullerene since August)
- /Some/ insomnia – Which was normal, pre-Levaquin.
- Post physical activity crashing for days, is reduced.
- Reduced overall sleep (from 10 hours to 6/8)
Reduced body heat is consistent with changes in mitochondrial mass (ie: smaller mitochondrial mass suggests less ATP). Nicotinamide Riboside appears to improve the quality of your mitochondrial via autophagy activation (Kang and Hwang, 2009). However if I really wanted to rid myself of any broken mitochondria, I’d have to do a NR challenge stacked with something like PQQ. I might do this in the near future.
* Organic Whey Protein
This was a hit or a miss. Organic, Cold Pressed Whey Protein had a 50/50 chance of making my energy levels close to normal, but the effect was short lived, only lasted 5 hours a day. Whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress (Shertzer et al.,2013), Increases cellular glutathoine levels (Kent et al.,2003). I need to investigate this more.
* IV Based Antioxidant Therapy
March 30th, 2016 I went to a local doctor (N.P.) that gave me a Myers Cocktail with a Glutathione Push. This made me feel worse for about a day, then my mental functionality got a lot better – probably 30 to 50% – Permanently. I had to fork out $300 out of pocket for this. This was too expensive for multiple treatments (plus a 90 minute drive). My health insurance company did not want to pay me back for treatments since there’s no official diagnosis from a doctor. (Remind me why I pay $8k a year for health insurance?)
In April, 2016, I decided to try self administered Intravenous IV therapy – Glutathione, etc. since I’ve had 1 professional IV performed with great results I wanted to save myself money, and again, I was very desperate. I ordered Glutathione from a chemical supply company, as well as NAC, NACA – Experimental antioxidant that is just like NAC but much better (Ates et al,2008; Penugonda et al,2005). NACA was very, very expensive for the dosage I obtained. I also bought D-Ribose due to it’s antioxidant effects (Garnett et al.,1996)
So now I had plenty of supplies for 4x IVs with NAC, NACA, L-Glutathione 2mg (per IV) – with 10CC bags of saline. My first few IVs came under supervision from a colleague, and we set the drip rate to be slow and steady for the first bag – About 60 minutes. To clarify, the first bag contained about 50mg of NAC, 1mg of NACA, and a 5mg of D-Ribose for 60 minutes (I might be wrong about the dosages since I can’t find the paper where I wrote down the exact numbers)- Then when the bag was finished, we performed a push of Glutathione (2mg). The next few applications consisted double the amount L-Glutathione (4mg) until I ran out. I ended up buying some… skin whitening vials.. which have the same Glutathione ($70 to $120 for 10 vials), just less of a dosage I wanted. The latest one I had ordered contained 6500mg of L-Glutathione, 600mg of Alpha Lipoic Acid, 5000mg of VitC, 600mg of Collagen Extract, and some smaller unrelated things. It’s 12 vials. I have not had them performed yet as of June 3rd of 2016.
Within a month of doing the above, my heart palpations completely went away, as the remaining aches in my tendons/feet/hands when showering, and my eye floaters reduced by double digit percentage. My memory had gotten much better – however energy levels didn’t see the same gains, a modest improvement. I can stay awake longer than 10 hours most of the time and get tired about 14 to 16 hours – It’s not back to normal but it’s a huge improvement overall. My resting heart rate went from 65bpm to about 43bpm. The abnormal sensations have gone away (the strange numbness).
S-Acetyl-L-Glutathione is a highly absorbable lipophilic analogue of glutathione – I performed 4x challenges on this, due to it’s low plasma half life of 10 to 20 minutes (Hong et al., 2005, Table 1; Wendel and Cikryt, 1980; Lu, 1999). This low plasma half-life is not actually a bad thing, since current literature makes references to direct uptake by cellular/organs. S-Acetyl-L-Glutathione seems to be able to cross the blood-brain-barrier (Kidd, 1997; Adams et al., 1991). I performed the challenge because Glutathione deficiencies can cause Mitochrondia changes in vitro (Meister, 1995).
Anything I have tried/try antioxidant wise (any of the above treatments) to my body, gives me a surge of energy, to nearly pre-Levaquin levels. I have a hypothesis that my body has phase II detoxification genetic issues, which has been known in the literature to cause chronic, post Fluoroquinolone health problems (Strauchman and Moringstar, 2012), or it’s possible that Levaquin disrupts the daily glycogen generation capacity, which is the total energy for a human body. (Lorini and Ciman, 1962; Michelakis, 2007; Mitchell, 1978) – but that value is slow to change in people and takes nearly 2 years to complete a cycle. (Michelakis, 2007). Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be related to fatigue, according to Filler et al. (2014).
A challenge was 1 pill every hour, for 16 hours. I performed 4 of these within a month. The last challenge I performed, I did a dosage equivalent to 32 pills, which is one pill every 30 minutes for 16 hours. This should have kept my total GSH levels to over 1000 for almost an entire day. I felt a little better afterwards, and no major changes. The mid-day fatigue epiosdes I was having, were not present on any of the challenges. I could have probably stayed awake for over 24 hours.
* Probiotics [June 28th, 2016 – Restarted on November 29th, 2016]
Probiotics seem to have numerous health benefits. (7/2/16 is when I started taking them). I started to take them because antibiotics, can disrupt the homoeostasis of your intestinal microbe for up to a year according to Zaura et al (2015)
Lactobacillus is needed for proper Thyroid Function due to the fact your gut bacteria needs to convert some inorganic forms of Selenium into more bioavailable forms to protect your thyroid from damage (Pessione,2012; Triggiani et al., 2009). There is strong evidence that your digestive system biome influences/controls levels of anxiety, depression, etc (Carabotti et al., 2015; Saulnier et al., 2013)
Applications of the Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and GABA receptor behavior via the vagus nerve system (GBA) (Bravo et al., 2011), chronic fatigue syndrome (Rao et al., 2009; Singh et al., 2012) alters brain biochemestry (Tillisch et al., 2012)
Alterations to gut microbiota have been shown to improve mood and reduce anxiety in patients with chronic fatigue (Logan and Katzman, 2005; Rao et al., 2009). Oral supplementation of probiotics resulted in reduced urinary cortisol and mental stress (Messaoudi et al., 2011) and reduced reactivity to sad mood (Steenbergen et al., 2015b) in healthy human volunteers.
Certain strains of probiotics, namely Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, produce GABA, in vivo. (Barrett et al., 2012; Boonstra et al., 2016). GABA and its receptors are widely distributed through the ENS (Auteri et al., 2015). Additionally, there is considerable communication between the gut and the brain through the vagal nerve (Cryan and O’Mahony, 2011; Cryan and Dinan, 2012). This nerve consists of sensory nerve fibers that relay information about the state of bodily organs to the central nervous system (Thayer and Sternberg, 2009).
I took them for a month over the summer I did not notice any changes to my mental functionality and/or energy levels. I stopped taking them. However, I didn’t get bloated after large meals of Pasta anymore.
I think the issue is that the dosage is too low for my health problems. If I increased the dosage, This should flood my intensestences with a very very large amount of friendly bacteria.
For comparsion, The overall total number of bacterial cells of the intestinal flora is approximately 1014, which is 100,000,000,000,000 or 100 trillion (Ott et al., 2004). I think megadosing might have a profound effect on my recovery, since small dosages might not even be worthwhile and/or take a long time, perhaps months and years to actually do anything. With this test, I will end up flooding my body with 1% of the total number of gut floria, which is much larger than the standard dosages recommended.
On November 29th, just after 2am, I did an initial loading test of 15 pills of 30 trillion (Dr. Tobias Probiotics: 30 Billion with Delay Release & Spore Forming Strains – Probiotic Supplement for Post-Antibiotic, Health & Immune Support Manufacturer: Dr. Tobias). Within 90 minutes, just before bed, I had a surge of happiness – similar to being high on painkillers but not in the same thing. The effect wasn’t short lived, and has progressed for over 24 hours. I feel slightly better, happier and content than before. I had a surge of energy that prevented me from sleeping. When I woke up, I felt pretty good, but not amazing.
I ordered some more diverse strains since these probiotics might not be effective any longer, due to their age (bought them in June). I will do another loading test soon, but for the next test, it will consist of megadosing the 60 billion strain with 20 pills very quickly, on an empty stomach. An hour later, I will megadose with 20 pills of 30 billion, which will will be over a trillion, or 1% of the total number of gut bacteria in a normal person. Baby steps are not needed for what I have been going through for the last year.
* CDP Choline. [Started taking this November 11th of 2016]
Choline influences nervous system functionality via acetylcholine. Choline is used for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and the cell membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine, which increases the repair of <any> myelin sheath damage, and increases it’s density, in vitro. (Skripuletz et al., 2015; Weiss, 1995; Clement and Kent, 1999; Hunt et al., 2001). According to the paper by Skripuletz et al., CDP Choline increases density of myelin, reversed motor coordination deficits, etc after 6 weeks of treatment, in vitro (Graph 1 & 2), also crosses the Blood-Brain-Barrier (Conant and Schauss, 2004; Garcia-Cobos et al., 2010) I hypothesis the reason it takes many ‘floxies’ a long time to see any relief (ie: x symptoms go away, mitigated) is because the foods that contain Choline (meats, eggs) are in small amounts, combined with slow regeneration of myelin, is the culprit. This supplementation *should* improve my functionality to my sweat glands in my arms and legs, and perhaps repair them. I am better overall than 10 months ago, but I still have stamina problems/sweating problems on my arms and legs. One thing I have to keep in mind is that an overload of Choline will cause brain fog and cognitive defects (temporarily until the balance is restored), so I have to do small dosages. 300mg every other day.
Choline is quite safe (Grieb, 2014; Adibhatla and Hatcher, 2002), Adverse effects are extremely rare, and consisted of stomach pain, diarrhea, and headaches. CDP-choline seems to have a lack of toxicity, but a fatal dosage in rodents is 8,000 mg/kg orally, which translates into 560,000 mg CDP-choline in a 70 kg person, which is almost not possible to ingest. (Skripuletz, et al., 2015)
Cipro, in Dogs, appears to affect Acetylcholine by inhibiting it’s release (Tagaya et al., 1995), Enrofloxacin exposure caused lipid peroxidation and neural dysfunction (lower AchE) in fish (Wang, et al., 2009)
Too soon to say if it’s working, but I will make sure I note down if it does anything. I might try Alpha GPC as well since it’s almost similar to Choline.
Future self-research – Dates in [ ] are the beginning part of my research.
* Post-Levaquin CNS/Brain repair stack [November 27th, 2016]
I’m going to try a common nootropic stack that enhances cognetive functionality (and repairs <any> CNS damage). I already am trying one part of it (Choline), but the stack consists of the following, Uridine, Choline, DHA (Omega3s) and B6/12. This will increase dopamine Receptors in the brain/CNS, according to some reports which I have not fully read over yet (Papers coming).
* Mitochrondia Defective Purging [November 26th, 2016]
Keeping NAD+ levels elevated, over 50%, for a week, decreases mtDNA mass by 50% in vitro via a 2009 paper “Nicotinamide enhances mitochondria quality through autophagy activation in human cells“. I need to come up with a protocol to purge the defective mitochronia completely (or at least in the 80th percentile range), then go full blast with biogenesis (ie: PQQ, etc)
* Resveratrol [November 3rd, 2016]
Resveratrol is quite interesting. It facilitates increased oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, gluconeogenesis, improves mitochondrial function, protects against metabolic disease by activation of SIRT1 and PGC-1a, l prevents insulin resistance, improves vascular function, (Diaz-Gerevini et al., 2016; Lagouge et al 2006; Csiszar et al., 2009; Ungvari et al., 2011).. however, there’s some conflicting information about if it’s effective at all. Some users of this are even complaining of joint pain that doesn’t go away.
* Omega-3 [August 14th, 2016]
High-dose Fish Oil refluidizes all cell membranes including Mitochondrial membranes by altering their plasticity. High dosage, meaning 2G a day. (Herbst et al., 2014)
* Nootropics [May 9th, 2016]
I tried these before, but I had a horrible reaction. According to numerous people, you need to take them /with/ Choline, as they deplete the Choline in your body. Curiously, when I took Oxiracetam (a small dosage), the negative effects I experienced are exactly like what happened on October 26th of 2015 (anxiety, vomiting, nervousness, brain fog, etc) Could there be a link between Levaquin and acetylcholine? Citicoline intake will increase acetylcholine production downstream, otherwise. Pramiracetam tasted horrible.
* N-acetylcarnosine (eye drops) [May 4th, 2016]
My eyes are more dry now than they were pre-Levaquin. N-acetylcarnosine based eye drops seem to be the only antioxidants out there (at least until NACA based ones show up on the market)
What MAY or MAY NOT have worked:
I took the entire bottle for 30 days and I didn’t notice anything major, but I was in agony from tendon pain. My energy levels were very bad from October 27th until my IV treatments, when they improved slightly. There’s so many numerous papers in the peer reviewed literature about MitoQ and it’s health benefits. I might revisit it and take it for a long time. It’s expensive, though.
* Collagen Advanced Formula 1, 2 and 3 (6x pills a day, should have gotten the Powder).
When I started taking this, I noticed the throbbing pain in my tendons was reduced slightly. Could be placebo, though, as it takes your body 100 days to make new collagen (Khan et al., 2001; Bass, 2012)
1500 to 3000mg (2x) a day – Gives me /some/ energy. I take it once in awhile, now. I get very bloated when I take more than one 1500mg pill in a 24 hour period. I took 4 pills one day and I almost shit myself because of the stomach pain.
1x a day – Increases testosterone levels gradually. Seems to have increased my sex drive and body temperature.
Mitochondria Biogenesis / up-regulation. (20mg/day). I didn’t notice much of anything , but I took it as directed until the bottle ran out.
* D-ribose-L-cysteine (RiboCene)
Seems to enhance/increase intracellular GSH aka Glutathoine (Oz et al.,2007, Kader et al., 2014), reduces LDL (Kader et al.,2014), Reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stomach and restores homoeostasis in the gut (Kim et al.,2009). It’s very expensive, though. A 30 day supply is $70 USD (1x pill a day) – but the peer reviewed literature makes mention of serum levels of GSH increase rather quickly with that supplement, but then drop off since the cells absorb the GSH, directly. I took it for 2 weeks and didn’t notice anything. It’s very expensive, though. I might revisit this. It actually made me very tired when I started taking it.
Made me very tired during the day. So tired I was falling asleep standing up. [Might be a dosage issue]. Methyl-B12, in some studies with super high dosages, appears to reverse peripheral neuropathy via nerve regeneration (Watanabe,. et al 1994; Tanaka, 2015; Head, 2006; Okada et al., 2010), improves nerve conduction velocity (Morani et al., 2010). However, in a large scale trial, B12 supplementation did not appear to have much effect (Dangour et al., 2015). But, that study was only performed with patients mean age of >= 75 years. I might revisit this, though with super high dosages. Methyl-B12 deficiencies affect Adrenal functionality (Lodhi and Panchal, 2014; Majeed and Arafat, 2010), though.
What did NOT work at all:
- Liquid Glutathione (Liposomal Glutathione)
- Pure Acetyl L-Carnitine (Bulk Supplements Powder)
- Pure R-Alpha Lipoic Acid (Bulk Supplements Powder)
- Pure Ascorbic Acid (BS Powder)
- Pure Glycine Powder (BS Powder)
- Pure NAC (N-Acetyl L-Cysteine) Powder (Smells really bad!)
- Magnesium Threonate – Acid reflux.
- B12 shots from my doctor. Did nothing to my fatigue.
- Caffeine at any dosage, from 20mg to 1000mg.
- Thyrovanz – Desiccated thyroid (50mg, smallest available). This is a full compliment thyroid supplement, from NZ Cows; Contains T1/T2/T3/T4 – I didn’t need a prescription for it since it’s marketed as a supplement. I’m taking this because T3 influences Glutathione levels in your body (Dasgupta et al., 2007; Howie et al., 1995; FernÃ¡ndez and Videla, 1996). T3, for example, seems to reverse Apoptosis in Rat Liver Mitochrondia (Mukherjee et al., 2014). This is a temporary treatment because I do not want to throw myself into full blown Hypothyroidism. Took it for a month, and noticed nothing but my heart rate increasing.
- Diet changes. Anti-gluten, paleo, etc. None of them did anything as far as I can tell.
- …And many more.
Out of the 55 supplements/therapies I have tried, only 8 of them have shown any effect at all. 2 of them had very bad side effects (2 out of the 3 nootropics)
- Ilgin S, Can OD, Atli O, Ucel UI, Sener E, Guven I. Ciprofloxacin-induced
neurotoxicity: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms. Toxicol Mech
Methods. 2015;25(5):374-81. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2015.1026008. PubMed PMID:
- Talla V, Veerareddy P. Oxidative Stress Induced by Fluoroquinolones on Treatment for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Indian Patients. Journal of Young Pharmacistsâ€¯: JYP. 2011;3(4):304-309. doi:10.4103/0975-1483.90242.
- Ott SJ, Musfeldt M, Ullmann U, Hampe J, Schreiber S. Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004;42(6):2566-2572. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.6.2566-2572.2004.
- Barrett E, Ross RP, O’Toole PW, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. γ-Aminobutyric acid
production by culturable bacteria from the human intestine. J Appl Microbiol.
2012 Aug;113(2):411-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05344.x. Erratum in: J Appl
Microbiol. 2014 May;116(5):1384-6. PubMed PMID: 22612585.
- Boonstra E, de Kleijn R, Colzato LS, Alkemade A, Forstmann BU, Nieuwenhuis S. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior. Frontiers in Psychology. 2015;6:1520. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01520.
- A.V. Rao, A.C. Bested, T.M. Beaulne, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndromeGut Pathogens, 1 (2009), p. 6
- Singh, P. K., et al. “Role of Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded floating beads in chronic fatigue syndrome: behavioral and biochemical evidences.” Neurogastroenterology & Motility 24.4 (2012): 366-e170.
- Dangour, Alan D., et al. “Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 102.3 (2015): 639-647.
- Interrelationship of Vitamin B12, Androgens and Cortisol in Chronic Stress and associated Vascular Dysfunction
- Methylcobalamin has an Effect on Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal-Adrenal Axis
- Nutrients and Botanicals for Treatment of Stress: Adrenal Fatigue, Neurotransmitter Imbalance, Anxiety, and Restless Sleep
- Tagaya E, Tamaoki J, Takemura H, Chiyotani A, Konno K. [Effect of
ciprofloxacin on contractile responses of canine airway smooth muscle].
Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1995 Apr;69(4):404-7. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 7751748.
- Okada, Kiyoshi, et al. “Methylcobalamin increases Erk1/2 and Akt activities through the methylation cycle
and promotes nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve injury model.” Experimental neurology 222.2 (2010): 191-203.
- Tanaka H. [Old or new medicine? Vitamin B12 and peripheral nerve neuropathy].
Brain Nerve. 2013 Sep;65(9):1077-82. Review. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 24018744.
- Head, Kathleen A. “Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies.” Alternative medicine review 11.4 (2006): 294.
- Wang N, Nkejabega N, Hien NN, Huynh TT, Silvestre F, Phuong NT, Danyi S,
Widart J, Douny C, Scippo ML, Kestemont P, Huong DT. Adverse effects of
enrofloxacin when associated with environmental stress in Tra catfish
(Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Chemosphere. 2009 Dec;77(11):1577-84. doi:
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.09.038. PubMed PMID: 19836822.
- Grieb P. Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues. CNS Drugs. 2014;28:185–193.
- Grieb P. Beneficial effects of exogenous CDP-cholinê (citicoline) in EAE. Brain. 2015 doi: 10.1093/brain/awv140.
- Watanabe T, Kaji R, Oka N, Bara W, Kimura J. Ultra-high dose methylcobalamin
promotes nerve regeneration in experimental acrylamide neuropathy. J Neurol Sci.
1994 Apr;122(2):140-3. PubMed PMID: 8021696.
- Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF. Citicoline mechanisms and clinical efficacy in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res. 2002;70:133–139.
- Kremer, D., Göttle, P., Hartung, H. P., & Küry, P. (2016). Pushing Forward: Remyelination as the New Frontier in CNS Diseases. Trends in neurosciences, 39(4), 246-263.
- Hamacher-Brady A, Brady NR. Mitophagy programs: mechanisms and physiological implications of mitochondrial targeting by autophagy. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2016;73:775-795. doi:10.1007/s00018-015-2087-8.
- Jang S, Kang HT, Hwang ES. Nicotinamide-induced Mitophagy: EVENT MEDIATED BY HIGH NAD+/NADH RATIO AND SIRT1 PROTEIN ACTIVATION. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2012;287(23):19304-19314. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.363747.
- Shibasaki M, Crandall CG. Mechanisms and controllers of eccrine sweating in humans. Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition). 2010;2:685-696.
- Grill MF, Maganti RK. Neurotoxic effects associated with antibiotic use: management considerations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2011;72(3):381-393. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03991.x.
- Csiszar A, Labinskyy N, Pinto JT, Ballabh P, Zhang H, Losonczy G, Pearson K,
de Cabo R, Pacher P, Zhang C, Ungvari Z. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial
biogenesis in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009
Jul;297(1):H13-20. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00368.2009. PubMed PMID: 19429820;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2711732.
- Zoltan Ungvari; William E. Sonntag; Rafael de Cabo; Joseph A. Baur; Anna Csiszar. Mitochondrial Protection by Resveratrol
Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011;39(3):128-132.
- Lagouge et al., 2006 M. Lagouge, C. Argmann, Z. Gerhart-Hines, H. Meziane, C. Lerin, F. Daussin, N. Messadeq, J. Milne, P. Lambert, P. Elliott, et al.
Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha
- Diaz-Gerevini GT, Repossi G, Dain A, Tarres MC, Das UN, Eynard AR. Beneficial
action of resveratrol: How and why? Nutrition. 2016 Feb;32(2):174-8. doi:
10.1016/j.nut.2015.08.017. Review. PubMed PMID: 26706021.
- Khan KM, Cook JL, Taunton JE, et al. Overuse tendinosis, not tendinitis—Part 1:
A new paradigm for a difficult clinical problem. [Accessed 13 February 2012];Physician Sportsmed. 2000 28(5)
- Bass E. Tendinopathy: Why the Difference Between Tendinitis and Tendinosis Matters. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork. 2012;5(1):14-17.
- Kang, H. T. and Hwang, E. S. (2009),
Nicotinamide enhances mitochondria quality through autophagy activation in human cells.
Aging Cell, 8: 426–438. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00487.x
- Trammell SA, Schmidt MS, Weidemann BJ, Redpath P, Jaksch F, Dellinger RW, Li
Z, Abel ED, Migaud ME, Brenner C. Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally
bioavailable in mice and humans. Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 10;7:12948. doi:
10.1038/ncomms12948. PubMed PMID: 27721479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5062546.
- Khan NA, Auranen M, Paetau I, Pirinen E, Euro L, Forsström S, Pasila L,
Velagapudi V, Carroll CJ, Auwerx J, Suomalainen A. Effective treatment of
mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3. EMBO Mol Med. 2014
Apr 6;6(6):721-31. doi: 10.1002/emmm.201403943. PubMed PMID: 24711540; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC4203351.
- Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a
vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Clin
Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Nov;16(6):657-61. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32836510c0.
Review. PubMed PMID: 24071780.
- Mukherjee S, Chellappa K, Moffitt A, Ndungu J, Dellinger RW, Davis JG, Agarwal
B, Baur JA. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis promotes liver
regeneration. Hepatology. 2016 Nov 3. doi: 10.1002/hep.28912. [Epub ahead of
print] PubMed PMID: 27809334.
- Trammell SA, Yu L, Redpath P, Migaud ME, Brenner C. Nicotinamide Riboside Is a
Major NAD+ Precursor Vitamin in Cow Milk. J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):957-63. doi:
10.3945/jn.116.230078. PubMed PMID: 27052539.
- Conze DB, Crespo-Barreto J, Kruger CL. Safety assessment of nicotinamide
riboside, a form of vitamin B3. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016 Jan 20. pii:
0960327115626254. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26791540.
- Adams JD Jr, Klaidman LK, Odunze IN, et al.
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Brain
levels of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and
vitamin E. Mol Clin Neuropathol 1991;
- Meister A. Mitochondrial changes associated with glutathione deficiency.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 24;1271(1):35-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 7599223.
- Hong SY, Gil HW, Yang JO, Lee EY, Kim HK, Kim SH, Chung YH, Hwang SK, Lee ZW.
Pharmacokinetics of glutathione and its metabolites in normal subjects. J Korean
Med Sci. 2005 Oct;20(5):721-6. PubMed PMID: 16224142; PubMed Central PMCID:
- Strauchman M, Morningstar MW. Fluoroquinolone toxicity symptoms in a patient presenting
with low back pain. Clinics and Practice. 2012;2(4):e87. doi:10.4081/cp.2012.e87.
- Skripuletz T, Manzel A, Gropengießer K, Schäfer N, Gudi V, Singh V, Salinas
Tejedor L, Jörg S, Hammer A, Voss E, Vulinovic F, Degen D, Wolf R, Lee DH, Pul R,
Moharregh-Khiabani D, Baumgärtner W, Gold R, Linker RA, Stangel M. Pivotal role
of choline metabolites in remyelination. Brain. 2015 Feb;138(Pt 2):398-413. doi:
10.1093/brain/awu358. PubMed PMID: 25524711.
- Conant R, Schauss AG. Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive dysfunction
in the elderly: a review of the literature. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:17-31
- Weiss GB. Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicoline. Life Sci 1995;56:637-660
- Hunt AN, Clark GT, Attard GS, Postle AD. Highly saturated endonuclear phosphatidylcholine is synthesized in situ and colocated with CDP-choline pathway enzymes. J Biol Chem 2001;276:8492-9
- Garcia-Cobos R, Frank-Garcia A, Gutierrez-Fernandez M, Diez-Tejedor E. Citicoline, use in cognitive decline: vascular and degenerative. J Neurol Sci 2010;299:188-92.
- Herbst EA, Paglialunga S, Gerling C, Whitfield J, Mukai K, Chabowski A,
Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL, Holloway GP. Omega-3 supplementation alters
mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal
muscle. J Physiol. 2014 Mar 15;592(6):1341-52. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.267336.
PubMed PMID: 24396061; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3961091.
- J.A. Bravo, P. Forsythe, M.V. Chew, E. Escaravage, H.M. Savignac, T.G. Dinan, J. Bienenstock, J.F. Cryan
Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108 (2011), pp. 16050–16055
- Frantz MC, Wipf P. Mitochondria as a target in treatment. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2010 Jun;51(5):462-75. doi: 10.1002/em.20554.
- Michelakis, Evangelos. “A Mitochondria-K+ Channel Axis Is Suppressed in Cancer and Its Normalization Promotes Apoptosis and Inhibits Cancer Growth”. University of Alberta. University of Alberta, 2007.
- Kalghatgi S, Spina CS, Costello JC, et al. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells. Science translational medicine. 2013;5(192):192ra85. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006055.
- Ates B1, Abraham L, Ercal N. 2008 “Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and comparison with N-acetylcysteine (NAC).”
Penugonda S1, Mare S, Goldstein G, Banks WA, Ercal N. “Effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell line PC12.”
- Garnett W, Garnett M. Paper presented at the Conference on: Oxygen Metabolites in Nonheme Metabollichemistry, June 23, 1996. University of Minnesota; Charge relay from molybdate oxyradicals to palladium-lipoic complex to DNA
- Raj A, Praveen KV, Varghese S, Mukkadan JK, Joseph PK. Biochemical effects of feeding soft drink and ethanol. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 May;47(5):333-7. PubMed PMID: 19579797.
- Kristensen M, Jensen M, Kudsk J, Henriksen M, Mølgaard C. Short-term effects on bone turnover of replacing milk with cola beverages: a 10-day interventional study in young men. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec;16(12):1803-8. Epub 2005 May 11. PubMed PMID: 15886860.
- Strauchman M, Morningstar MW. Fluoroquinolone toxicity symptoms in a patient presenting with low back pain. Clinics and Practice. 2012;2(4):e87. doi:10.4081/cp.2012.e87.
Huang J, Zhou C, He J, Hu Z, Guan WC, Liu SH. Protective effect of reduced glutathione C60 derivative against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in HEK 293T cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016 Jun;36(3):356-63. doi: 10.1007/s11596-016-1591-x. Epub 2016 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 27376803.
- Mamontova TV, Vesnina LE, Mikityuk MV, Bobrova NA, Kutsenko LA, Gordinskaya IL, Kaidashev IP. [FULLERENE C60 INHIBITED FREE RADICAL AND DESTRUCTIVE PROCESSES IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE DURING ADJUVANT ARTHRITIS IN RATS]. Fiziol Zh. 2015;61(2):80-6. Ukrainian. PubMed PMID: 26387164.
- Ye S, Zhou T, Cheng K, Chen M, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Yang P. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2015 Dec;10(1):953. doi: 10.1186/s11671-015-0953-9. Epub 2015 May 30. PubMed PMID: 26058514; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4481245.
- Ngan CL, Basri M, Tripathy M, Abedi Karjiban R, Abdul-Malek E. Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015 Apr 5;70:22-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2015.01.006. Epub 2015 Jan 22. PubMed PMID: 25619806.
- Artem A. Tykhomyrova, Victor S. Nedzvetskya, Vladimir K. Klochkovb, Grigory V. Andrievskyb Nanostructures of hydrated C60 fullerene (C60HyFn) protect rat brain against alcohol impact and attenuate behavioral impairments of alcoholized animals
- Yang X, Li C-J, Wan Y, Smith P, Shang G, Cui Q. Antioxidative fullerol promotes osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2014;9:4023-4031. doi:10.2147/IJN.S66785.
- Grigory V. Andrievskya, b, , Vadim I. Bruskovc, Artem A. Tykhomyrovd, , , Sergey V. Gudkovc, Peculiarities of the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of hydrated C60 fullerene nanostuctures in vitro and in vivo
- Yang X, Li C-J, Wan Y, Smith P, Shang G, Cui Q. Antioxidative fullerol promotes osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2014;9:4023-4031. doi:10.2147/IJN.S66785.
- Krusic PJ, Wasserman E, Keizer PN, Morton JR, Preston KF Radical reactions of c60. Science. 1991
- V. A. Chistyakov, Yu. O. Smirnova, E. V. Prazdnova, and A. V. Soldatov, “Possible Mechanisms of Fullerene C60 Antioxidant Action,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 821498, 4 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/821498
- Najla Gharbi ,† Monique Pressac ,‡ Michelle Hadchouel ,§ Henri Szwarc ,† Stephen R. Wilson ,â€– and Fathi Moussa *† Fullerene is a Powerful Antioxidant in Vivo with No Acute or Subacute Toxicity. 2005
- OZ HS, CHEN TS, NAGASAWA H. Comparative efficacies of 2 cysteine prodrugs and a glutathione delivery agent in a colitis model. Translational researchâ€¯: the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 2007;150(2):122-129. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2006.12.010.
- Shershakova N, Baraboshkina E, Andreev S, Purgina D, Struchkova I, Kamyshnikov O, Nikonova A, Khaitov M. Anti-inflammatory effect of fullerene C60 in a mice model of atopic dermatitis. J Nanobiotechnology. 2016 Jan 25;14:8. doi: 10.1186/s12951-016-0159-z. PubMed PMID: 26810232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4727272.
** The story above is truthful, accurate and told to the best of the ability of the writer. It is not intended as medical advice. No person who submits his or her story, nor the people associated with Floxie Hope, diagnoses or treats any illness. The story above should not be substituted for professionally provided medical advice. Please consult your doctor before trying anything that has been mentioned in this story, or in any other story on this site. Please also note that people have varying responses to the treatments mentioned in each story. What helps one person may not help, and may even hurt, another person. It is important that you understand that supplements, IVs, essential oils, and all other treatments, effect people differently depending on the millions of variables that make each of us unique. Please use appropriate caution and prudence, and get professional medical advice.