Tag Archives: fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Damage Mitochondria – FDA Does Little

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The Pharmacovigilance folks at the FDA know that fluoroquinolones are damaging mitochondria.  Yet, they look the other way.  Adding a more severe warning about peripheral neuropathy to the warning label isn’t helpful.  People should know that they are increasing their risk of every chronic disease associated with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress when they take a fluoroquinolone.  That would actually be helpful.

Here is the post, on Hormones Matter – http://www.hormonesmatter.com/fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-damage-mitochondria-fda-adds-warning/

 

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“Side Effects” or collateral damage? Is there a difference?

The mantra of “all drugs have side-effects” has been so ingrained in us that we seem to have forgotten that these “side-effects” are deadly or devastating assaults on the health of those who suffer from them.  It is seen as a necessary evil that the medical/pharmaceutical industry has collateral damage and, rather than working to minimize the number of casualties that it has, we have accepted that they must happen and we look the other way.

When did this become okay?  When did it become okay for PEOPLE – sons, daughters, mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, loved human beings – to become collateral damage in the quest for big pharma’s profits?  Even if you’re not feeling cynical enough to agree with the last sentence, we should still ask, when did it become okay for people to become collateral damage in the quest for minimizing disease and infection?

It is assumed that a certain amount of collateral damage (“side-effects” sounds nicer, but the truth is that some people are sacrificed) is necessary.  But is that assumption true?  It may be true sometimes.  The benefits of a dangerous drug may outweigh the risk of adverse effects in some cases.  But for dangerous drugs, where severe damage to the people who take them is a possibility, collateral damage should be minimized.  Policies should be put in place to minimize the number of people who are exposed to dangerous drugs.  Protocols should be established to ensure that patients are aware that the drugs that they’re taking are dangerous so that true informed consent can be established prior to administration of a drug that has severe adverse effects.

This is common sense.  So why isn’t it being done?  We could all go down the path of conspiracy theories about pharmaceutical companies creating customers instead of providing tools that will actually help and heal people, but, well, I don’t want this article to get lost down that rabbit hole.  But it is still shameful, and a collective tragedy for humanity, that the real dangers of drugs are not realized and recognized and that proper policies and protocols are not in place to minimize the damage caused by them.

I’m guessing that most of you agree in theory, but to really see that it’s a problem, you need an example.

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox, etc. are DANGEROUS drugs.  These popular antibiotics, 26.9 million prescriptions for fluoroquinolones were written in 2011 (per the FDA), can cause damage to connective tissue (tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fascia, etc.) throughout the body, damage to the nervous systems (central, peripheral and autonomic), and more.  They disrupt and damage mtDNA, cause mitochondrial malfunction and increase oxidative stress throughout the body.  They cause a massive decrease in important antioxidants like glutatione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase production of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result in cell death.  CELL DEATH.  There is no known cure or treatment for those who are suffering from the adverse effects of these drugs.

When someone does have an adverse reaction to a fluoroquinolone antibiotic (again, Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox, etc.) it can be devastating.  In 2001 Dr. Jay S. Cohen did a study on those who are suffering from severe Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome and he noted that:

“It is difficult to describe the severity of these reactions. They are devastating. Many of the people in my study were healthy before their reactions. Some were high intensity athletes. Suddenly they were disabled, in terrible pain, unable to work, walk, or sleep.”

On my 32nd birthday I took Cipro to treat a urinary tract infection.  It damaged me.  I experienced peripheral neuropathy (an effect that the FDA just acknowledged on August 15, 2013 – http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm365050.htm) that made it painful to walk for months, my tendons were weakened and inflamed for a year, I lost my memory, concentration and reading comprehension, I suffered from anxiety and depression, I have heart palpitations and my heart rate has increased.

I was lucky.

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Greg wasn’t as lucky as me.  3 years after taking Cipro for the third time (his reaction was minimal the first two times) he is still unable to walk more than a couple hundred yards because his tendons have disintegrated and torn.  For years after having an adverse reaction to Cipro, he used an electric scooter to get around (a traditional wheelchair isn’t an option when the tendons in your arms are torn too.)  He has had to leave his profession as a professor.  He continues to struggle with his health on a daily basis.

25 year old Zachary says of his condition after taking Cipro, “My tendons, cartilage and nervous system have been chemically torn apart from the inside out. The pain that this causes me 24 hours a day, 7 days a week is excruciating beyond words and I have suffered through it without reprieve, alone, for almost half a year now. I have gone from being nearly 190 lbs, a martial arts teacher and body builder to under 160 lbs, crippled, unable to exercise at all and barely able to walk most of the time; all because I was given a drug that I never needed, that no one really needs, for a suspected infection.”

Though these three examples are of the damage done by Cipro, the other fluoroquinolone antibiotics, Levaquin, Avelox and a few less commonly used ones, are just as devastating.

One woman posted in one of the fluoroquinolone toxicity support groups that if she were an animal, she would get put down.  Think about that for a second.  She is a person, a daughter, maybe a mother and a wife, who thinks that the most humane thing to do is to put her down.  That’s how tortured she feels.  Of course, we don’t put down people and I’m not advocating that we do, I just think that it illustrates the point of how damaging and cruel these drugs are to their victims.

Zach’s words are illustrative of the inhumane torture that people feel when they are suffering from an acute adverse reaction to a fluoroquinolone, “The pain that this causes me 24 hours a day, 7 days a week is excruciating beyond words and I have suffered through it without reprieve.”  That is torture.  It’s cruel and it’s wrong.  We know that torture is wrong when it comes to prisoners of war, yet when Bayer and Johnson & Johnson chemically torture people we call it “side-effects” and look the other way.  It’s not okay though.  There is nothing that is okay about innocent people having system-wide breakdowns that are torturous, cruel and unnecessary.

You may be thinking, out of 26.9 million prescriptions, only a handful of people have been disabled by it, that’s okay.  But think about it, is it really okay?  Even if the number of people who are severely adversely affected by these drugs is small, and I would argue that it’s not, is it really okay for an ANTIBIOTIC to cause people to be disabled and to suffer?  The people who have been hurt by these drugs have lost so much of themselves – their ability to move, their ability to think, their ability to relate to other people, their livelihood, etc.  They lost these things when there were other, safer, drugs available that could have gotten rid of their infection.  No other class of antibiotics even has the potential for this much harm.  Penicillins, tetracyclines, cephalosporins – they’re not perfect, but they won’t cause a long-lasting, severe syndrome that tears apart connective tissue (tendons, ligaments, fascia, etc.) and damages the nervous systems (central, peripheral, autonomic).

Greg, Zachary and I are collateral damage, but we didn’t need to be.  The damage done to us could have been prevented.  A safer alternative drug could have, and should have, been given to us.  We could have been properly warned of the dangers of these drugs before they were administered.  A protocol could have been established to determine whether or not these drugs were absolutely necessary before the prescription was written.  Suffering could have been diminished with the use of a safer alternative drug.

It is a tragedy that people are needlessly suffering from preventable adverse reactions to unnecessarily strong and dangerous drugs.  Please be compassionate toward those who are hurt.  Please shift your thinking from, “all drugs have side-effects” to “side-effects should be minimized in every way possible because they are unacceptable.”  Just as importantly, please don’t become a victim yourself.  Don’t take Cipro, Levaquin or Avelox.  There are safe alternatives in almost every situation.

In closing, here are some wonderfully scathing words of Zachary’s on the topic of fluoroquinolones:

“Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have no place in the practice of medicine unless you agree that experimenting on human beings by irreversibly altering their DNA with purposefully unpredictable results and thus indefinitely crippling them unwittingly is something that falls under the definition of “health.” I’m thinking more in terms of “nauseatingly inhumane,” but that’s just me.”

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Friends Don’t Let Friends Take Fluoroquinolones

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I’ve been writing about the dangers of fluoroquinolone antibiotics(cipro/ciprofloxacin, levaquin/levofloxacin, avelox/moxifloxacin, floxin/ofloxacin and a few others) for a little over a year. As my friends, family, and associates have read what I’ve written, their skepticism has waned and many of them have realized that I actually know what I’m talking about when I say that fluoroquinolones are dangerous drugs that lead to destruction of connective tissues and nerves throughout the body. They have glanced at my source articles and noted that there are peer-reviewed journal articles that back up what I say.  It feels nice to be believed. It feels even nicer when those people let me know that they didn’t take fluoroquinolones because of the information that I gave them. It’s nice to know that they won’t get “floxed.”

In the last few months, several friends have approached me, asking about alternatives to fluoroquinolones. Here are some of their stories. All their names have been changed, but the stories are true.

Read More ——>

Please visit http://www.hormonesmatter.com/flouroquinolones-misuse/ for Rick, Melissa, Denise and Violet’s stories.

Thank you, as always, for reading and sharing information about FQ toxicity!

 

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Fluoroquinolones Surpass Vioxx and Thalidomide in Harm Done

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In a May, 2014 letter to the U.S. SenateDoctor Jay S. Cohen said of fluoroquinolones, “In my 40+ years in pharmacovigilance, FQs (fluoroquinolones) surpass Vioxx and Thalidomide in the degree of permanent harm done.”  Let that sink in for a bit.

Fluoroquinolones – cipro/ciprofloxacin, levaquin/levofloxacin, avelox/moxifloxacin and floxin/ofloxacin – drugs that are seen as simple antibiotics (though they do severe cellular harm and are more appropriate for use as chemotherapy drugs), that are prescribed more than 20 million times per year in the U.S. alone – are doing more harm than Vioxx – a drug that led to more than 140,000 American heart attacks, and Thalidomide – a drug that has caused birth-defects and deaths of thousands of children world-wide.

Vioxx has been removed from the market, and the use of Thalidomide is severely restricted.  Fluoroquinolones, on the other hand, are prescribed with abandon, despite the fact that hundreds of studies have shown that they do severe cellular damage and thousands of patients have filed reports with the FDA noting that a variety of severe health problems have been experienced after taking a fluoroquinolone.

Transgenerational Side-Effects

I have argued that fluoroquinolones have transgenerational ill effects and that children are suffering because of the epigenetic effects of fluoroquinolones (HERE and HERE).  I have never hoped to be wrong about anything more than my assertions that fluoroquinolones are related to autism, but the possibility exists – because we really don’t know what the transgenerational effects of microbiome destruction and depletion of mitochondrial DNA are – and fluoroquinolones do, indeed, both obliterate the microbiome and deplete the only non-redundant form of DNA that we have – mitochondrial DNA.  (1)………………………………..

READ MORE ON COLLECTIVE EVOLUTION

http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/06/25/these-popular-antibiotics-are-prescribed-to-millions-every-year-they-have-detrimental-effects-everyone-needs-to-be-aware-of-this/

 

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Adverse Drug Reactions are Like Earthquakes

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Here is a post about how adverse drug reactions are like Earthquakes –

http://www.hormonesmatter.com/adverse-drug-reactions-like-earthquakes/

Drugs, just like earthquakes, can shake your world and cause damage and destruction.

 

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Anthrax Exposure

Per NBC News, “More than 80 people may have been exposed to airborne anthrax bacteria in an embarrassing mishap at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and the numbers may go even higher, officials said Friday.

“Right now we have an excess of 80 individuals,” CDC deputy director Dr. Ileana Arias told NBC News. “We expect that number may even grow … because we’re trying to make that available to as many people as possible in order to make sure there are no adverse consequences to health of any of our employees as a result of what happened.”

Not good.  A breach in protocol has endangered the lives of at least 80 people.  I’m sure that the people exposed are terrified.  I’m sure that they’re willing to take whatever antibiotic they are given to either treat or prevent an anthrax infection.

Cipro will likely be given to many of them.

This is the comment that I’m making on any news source article I see on the topic –

I’m betting that a good portion of these scientists will get “floxed.” Floxed is a short-hand term for fluoroquinolone toxicity syndrome – a severe adverse reaction to a fluoroquinolone antibiotic – cipro/ciprofloxacin, levaquin/levofloxacin, avelox/moxifloxacin and floxin/ofloxacin. Cipro is getting pushed HARD as a treatment. Cipro and all of the other fluoroquinolones cause severe cellular damage through disruption of the mitochondrial DNA replication process, dramatic increases in oxidative stress, lipid disruptions and depleting vital intercellular enzymes.

Doxycycline can also treat anthrax. It’s pretty benign. Doxy is a bacteriostatic antibiotic and Cipro is a bactericidal antibiotic. Bactericidal antibiotics damage mitochondria.

Saying that you can either take Doxy or Cipro is kind of like saying that, in order to wake up in the morning you can drink coffee or shoot meth. Sure, both will wake you up, but one has significantly fewer consequences than the other.

I hope that the people exposed look at the 43 page warning label for Cipro and demand something else.

Getting floxed isn’t fun. Adverse effects like peripheral neuropathy, severe anxiety, insomnia, weakening of every tendon in the body, etc. can be permanent.

Perhaps some people will see this post too.  Feel free to copy and paste what I wrote anywhere.

Here are the articles that should be read:

Science Translational Medicine, “Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells

Journal of Young Pharmacists, “Oxidative Stress Induced by Fluoroquinolones on Treatment for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Indian Patients

Cipro Warning Label

Mechanism of action for Cipro, per the warning label:

Mechanism of Action
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA
gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both Type II topoisomerases), which are required for bacterial DNA
replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Mitochondria are ancient relatives of bacteria.  Fluoroquinolones disrupt enzymes and DNA replication in mitochondria as well as in bacteria.

I wish all of the people exposed to anthrax the best of luck.  I’m here if you need me.

 

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Epigenetics and Fluoroquinolones: Now What?

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Per Dr. Chandler Marrs (who runs www.hormonesmatter.com), “Above and around genetic codes reside the on/off switches to many processes (the switching of genes on and off is epigenetics). If common medications, including fluoroquinolones, up or downregulate these processes and create new diseases, what is someone who takes them supposed to do? Can epigenetic changes be reversed? What is the patient to do with all the recent research on epigenetics? The research is all well and good, but what does it mean to the patient?”

Indeed.

Here is a post about how fluoroquinolones, and other common pharmaceuticals, affect epigenetics. There are currently more questions than answers and the right path is far from clear.

https://www.hormonesmatter.com/epigenetics-common-medications/

 

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Fluoroquinolones and Children

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The post entitled, “DON’T LET YOUR BABIES GROW UP TO BE FLOXIES” can be found on Hormones Matter.

http://www.hormonesmatter.com/fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-child-health-floxie/

Despite the fact that fluoroquinolone antibiotics – Cipro/Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin/Levofloxacin, Avelox/Moxifloxacin and Floxin/Ofloxacin – are contraindicated in the pediatric population because they have been shown to cause lameness and lesions on the cartilage of juvenile animals, they are administered to children all the time.  I have a friend who has a three year-old daughter who has been prescribed Cipro twice – once in the form of ear drops and once in the form of pills.  Luckily, my friend knows how dangerous fluoroquinolones are and she didn’t fill the prescriptions.  Other parents and children aren’t so lucky.  Children are being hurt by fluoroquinolones every day.  It’s a tragedy that needs to stop.  Please share “DON’T LET YOUR BABIES GROW UP TO BE FLOXIES” with any friends who are parents.  No child should go through the horror of fluoroquinolone toxicity.

 

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Your Mighty Mitochondria

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Fun facts – Nalidixic acid, the chemical compound that is the base of all fluoroquinolones, was discovered in 1962. Mitochondrial DNA was discovered in 1967 (by Lynn Margulis who happened to be married to Carl Sagan). So, if you are under the impression that naladixic acid was tested for its affects on mitochondrial DNA, you would be wrong. Information regarding how mitochondria affect gene expression is being uncovered… um… now-ish. So, in the 30+ years that fluoroquinolones have been pushed, they have been used by the human population with zero knowledge of how they affect gene expression (both mitochondrial and nuclear). Gene expression, as you might imagine, is important.

More information can be found in this post, “Your Mighty Mitochondria” published on Hormones Matter:

http://www.hormonesmatter.com/mighty-mitochondria/

 

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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics and Fungal Infections – A Real Problem

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When antibiotics kill the good bacteria in the gut, fungal infections can take over.  I wonder how many of our floxing symptoms have to do with fungal overgrowth?  Here are some thoughts.

http://www.hormonesmatter.com/fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-fungal-infections/

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Farewell my Friend. May Peace and Love be With You.

Creek

A Floxie friend called me last week to say goodbye. She had received a terminal prognosis from a couple of doctors and she was going into hospice care for her last hours/days/weeks/months on earth. She is in her early 50s. She has been dealing with fluoroquinolone toxicity, and some compounding issues that stemmed from being simultaneously administered Cipro with steroids, for about 13 months. She has become so weak, so poisoned, and so overwhelmed physically by her illness, that she can’t fight back any more. She will not last much longer.

I don’t know what to say. I don’t know what is appropriate in this situation. I wish her peace. I hope that she and her loved ones get the opportunities to say what they need to say to each other. I hope that she feels loved. I hope that she isn’t in pain.

I really, really, really wish that none of the physical and mental deterioration that she has experienced over the last 13 months had happened. There is nothing that is okay about her dying from a fluoroquinolone shutting down her body. It’s tragic. Absolutely tragic.

She was healthy, happy and beautiful 13 months ago.

Now she is going into hospice care.

It is just so, so sad.

I don’t think that anyone ever knows the right thing to say when faced with death. Concentrating on peace, love and coming to terms with the situation seems like the best, and right, thing to do. But, in our conversation, she did mention that she wished that she had the strength to tell her story, to speak out against those who poisoned her, and to warn others about the deadly combination of fluoroquinolones and steroids. She doesn’t have the strength to do so. But I do. She, and all of the other people who are hit hard by fluoroquinolone toxicity, are the reason that I do what I do. I write for them. It’s not about Lisa not being able to dance in heels for a while. It’s about those who lose their health, those who are in chronic pain, those who are too weak to fight back, and those who die as a result of fluoroquinolones. I write to scream about their pain and their losses. There is nothing that is okay about their pain (or my pain, as trivial as it is in comparison). There is nothing that is okay about body-wide shut-down and death being the result of taking an antibiotic.

I also write on Floxie Hope to let people know that their path is not necessarily one of terminal illness. Many people make a full recovery. I hope that everyone reading this recovers. But it would be false and disingenuous to pretend like everyone recovers. Not everyone does. Some people die from fluoroquinolone toxicity. It is tragic and it is wrong.

I hope that this little tribute to my friend brings her some peace and happiness. I acknowledge her struggle, her pain and her sickness. I don’t know what I can do to stop the horrible tragedy of people being hurt, and dying, from fluoroquinolone toxicity. But speaking out is a step. It is something that I am capable of doing and I hope that it helps.

May she be at peace. May she know, really truly know, that she is loved.

 

 

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How I Lost my Faith in Scientists

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I just want scientists to step up and scream about what they know.  Some of them, maybe many of them, fully realize that fluoroquinolones are dangerous.  Where is the outrage?  Where is the change?  I am deeply saddened by this list.  Thank you for reading the post!

http://www.hormonesmatter.com/lost-faith-scientists/

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Conflicting Study Results: Do DNA Breaks Hold Answers?

There is a lot of conflicting information about fluoroquinolone antibiotics (Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox, Floxin and a few others) noted in scientific journals.  One study will conclude one thing about how fluoroquinolones effect human cells and another study will reach the opposite conclusion.  It’s frustrating for everyone involved and it leads to the conclusion, that is also noted in most journal articles about fluoroquinolones, that, “Despite their widespread application, the exact mechanism of action of the quinolones is not fully understood.” (1)  Despite the fact that the exact mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones is unknown, shouldn’t some of the details of their effects on human cells be known?  Shouldn’t there be some clarity in how these drugs affect cells, if not how they work or sometimes don’t work?  Basic, verifiable, answers are sought, but they remain elusive.  Some interesting, and possibly useful, information may be found in examining why clear answers are so difficult to obtain.

Shouldn’t it be testable whether fluoroquinolones increase or decrease levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)?  Shouldn’t the question of whether fluoroquinolones increase or decrease cellular inflammation be verifiable?  Shouldn’t Scientists know whether fluoroquinolones activate or inhibit t-cell gene expression?  These things can be studied in laboratories.  Answering these questions doesn’t require long-term studies, surveys that are subject to interpretation or vague definitions.  They should be answerable questions and the answers should be clear.  It’s science, not philosophy.  The answers should be black or white, yes or no, not shades of grey.

Yet with each of these questions there are multiple conflicting reports.  No one seems to be able to consistently verify what happens to human cells when they are exposed to fluoroquinolones.  Some studies done by well-run institutions and published in reputable journals say that fluoroquinolones decrease ROS, reduce inflammation and inhibit t-cell gene expression (2).  Other articles in equally well-respected journals say the opposite (3, 4, 5, 6).  So which is true?  Does the arrow go up or down?  I’m sure that answering these questions isn’t easy, but they should be answerable and the answers should be the same each time an experiment is done, right?

So why are there differing answers?  Why can’t Scientists, many of whom are undoubtedly brilliant and capable, figure this out?  A couple of possible answers are that one group of Scientists’ methods are wrong, or that cells react differently to fluoroquinolones with each exposure.  Both possibilities are fascinating on some level.  If the methodologies of one group of Scientists produce an anti-inflammatory response within cells, but the methodologies of another group of Scientists produce an inflammatory response within cells, perhaps the difference in methodologies holds the key to limiting an inflammatory response in living humans.  A cure, or an antidote to the inflammation that is definitely experienced by some people having an adverse reaction to fluoroquinolones, may be revealed from the study methodologies in which an anti-inflammatory response was induced/observed.

An even more interesting possibility is that how cells react to fluoroquinolones depends on which strand of DNA the quinolone molecules attach to.  Studies have found that fluoroquinolones form a poisonous adduct to DNA (7, 8).  Perhaps the reaction of the cell in response to exposure to fluoroquinolones depends on which DNA strands are broken, where they’re broken and where the quinolone molecule attaches to the DNA.  It is plausible that there are some places where DNA could be broken and adducted to that would create an inflammatory response and there are other places where DNA could be broken and adducted to that would create an anti-inflammatory response.  I have neither the tools nor the expertise to test this hypothesis, but from the perspective of someone who has been studying adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones for the past 2 years, the notion that fluoroquinolones break and attach to DNA makes sense of many perplexing aspects about fluoroquinolone toxicity.  If we assume that DNA breaks and quinolone adduction to DNA is behind adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones, the following questions may have the following answers:

Why are some people adversely affected by fluoroquinolones while others aren’t?  Potential answer – some people have important strands of DNA affected while other people have unimportant strands of DNA affected.  And/Or, some people have DNA affected that triggers and inflammatory response and the over-production of ROS, while others don’t because their DNA is broken in less consequential spots.

Why could I handle Cipro for 3 prescriptions but the 4th prescription hurt me?  Potential answer – the Cipro affected inconsequential strands of DNA the first 3 times it was administered, but it damaged an important strand of DNA the 4th time it was administered.

Why did I experience a delayed adverse reaction to Levaquin?  Potential answer – it takes time for damaged DNA to replicate.

Why can’t anyone seem to figure out how these drugs work?  Potential answer – because the human genome is not fully mapped out and most Researchers aren’t looking at how fluoroquinolones affect DNA.

I’m not a Scientist.  I certainly could be wrong about the above hypothesis.  But I do find it both frustrating and interesting that Scientists, who are undoubtedly smarter than I am, can’t seem to figure out some basic facts about how fluoroquinolones work.  I think that there are some answers in their inability to find clear answers.  I suspect that the answers lie in quinolone adducts to DNA.  Perhaps someone with the tools to determine whether I’m right or wrong will design an experiment (that is consistently verifiable) to determine the effects of fluoroquinolones on DNA, and to determine whether or not DNA damage results in differing effects of the drugs.

Sources:

  1. Inorganic Chemistry, “New uses for old drugs: attempts to convert quinolone antibacterials into potential anticancer agents containing ruthenium.
  2. The Journal of Immunology, “Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Control T Cell Activation by Regulating IL-2 and IL-4 Expression:  Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin Mediated Immunosuppression
  3. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, “Fluoroquinolone Induced Tendinopathy: Etiology and Preventative Measures
  4. Nepal Medical College Journal, “Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antibacterial drug, ciprofloxacin, on human lymphocytes in vitro”
  5. Journal of Young Pharmacists, “Oxidative Stress Induced by Fluoroquinolones on Treatment for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Indian Patients
  6. Science Translational Medicine, “Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells
  7. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, “The Mechanism of Inhibition of Topoisomerase IV by Quinolone Antibacterials.”
  8. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Biochemistry, “Quinolone Binding to DNA Mediated by Magnesium Ions”

 

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